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全球两大经济体之间爆发贸易战所引发的担忧

  After 14 months in office, Donald Trump is making good on his campaign promise to crack down on what he has long called China's unfair trade practices. He announced plans for new tariffs on up to $60 billion of Chinese imports and other sanctions against China.
  在上任14个月后,唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)要兑现他的竞选承诺了,即打击他长期以来所称的中国不公平贸易做法。他宣布计划对高达600亿美元的中国进口商品征收新关税,并将采取其他对华制裁措施。
  That has provoked fears of a trade war between the world’s two largest economies, with China likely to retaliate against politically sensitive US exports such as soyabeans grown in farm states that swung behind Mr Trump in the 2016 election.
  这引发了人们对于全球头两大经济体之间将爆发贸易战的担忧,因为中国可能会对具有政治敏感性的美国出口商品进行报复,比如一些农业州出产的大豆,在2016年大选中,这些摇摆州选择了支持特朗普。
  Here are the key points:
  以下是一些要点:

  There will be tariffs on up to $60bn in Chinese imports
  美国将对高达600亿美元的中国进口商品征收新关税
  The plan signed by Mr Trump on Thursday calls for tariffs on up to $60bn in Chinese imports in key strategic sectors identified by Beijing in its “Made in China 2025” plan. The move is in response to what the administration says has been a co-ordinated strategy by Beijing to force US companies to hand over intellectual property to do business in China.
  特朗普周四签署的这项方案,要求对北京方面在《中国制造2025》中确定的关键战略领域的中国进口产品征收关税,涉及年度进口额将高达600亿美元。此举是为了回应美国政府所称的中方以下做法:中国政府采取协调一致的策略,迫使美国企业为在中国经营而把知识产权转移给中方。
  The 10 sectors identified in that plan are: advanced IT products; automated machine tools and robotics; aerospace and aeronautical equipment; maritime equipment; modern rail equipment; electric and other “new energy” vehicles; power equipment; agricultural equipment; “new materials”; and biopharmaceutical and other advanced medical products.
  该方案中确定的10个领域是:先进信息技术产品;自动化机床和机器人;航空航天装备;海洋工程装备;现代轨道交通装备;电动和其他“新能源”车辆;电力装备;农业机械装备;“新材料”;生物医药和其他高性能医疗器械。
  A specific list of products to be hit with the tariffs is due to be presented within 15 days. It will be subject to a public comment period after that. Not likely to be included, US officials indicated, are many consumer electronics products, such as iPhones.
  美国将在15天内列出一份具体的拟加征关税的中国产品清单。之后,美国将就该清单征求公众意见。美国官员表示,很多消费电子产品都不会被列入清单中,比如iphone。
  The US Treasury will be drafting investment restrictions
  美国财政部将草拟投资限制措施

  Mr Trump’s move comes as many in Washington are growing increasingly concerned over China’s efforts to acquire US technology by buying US companies and investing in tech start-ups.
  特朗普采取行动的背景是,华盛顿许多人对中国试图通过收购美国企业和投资美国科技初创企业来获取美国技术的做法越来越感到担忧。
  The order gives the US Treasury 60 days to identify how to create a regime to help limit Chinese investments in key sectors. It will sit alongside the Committee on Foreign Investment in the US, which already scrutinises inbound investments for national security implications.
  他指示美国财政部在60天内明确如何建立一个机制,帮助限制中国在美国关键领域的投资。该机制将与美国外国投资委员会(Cfius)协同合作,后者本就负责审查外来投资对国家安全的影响。
  The new regime is likely to establish new tests, such as whether US companies can invest freely in the same sectors in China. It also may target state-owned companies for additional scrutiny.
  新机制可能会包括一些新测试,比如美国公司是否可以不受限制地在中国的相同行业进行投资。它还可能针对国有企业实施额外审查。
  Together with reforms of Cfius now being pursued by Congress, the new measures could present major new barriers to Chinese foreign direct investment in the US, which was worth almost $30bn last year and reached a record $45bn in 2016.
  这些新措施,加上美国国会正推动对美国外国投资委员会进行的改革,可能使中国对美直接投资面临新的重大壁垒。去年中国对美国的直接投资接近300亿美元,在2016年则创下450亿美元的历史纪录。
  The US plans to take China to the WTO over its technology licensing rules
  美国打算就中国的技术许可规则在世贸组织起诉中国
  The US argues that China unfairly keeps US tech companies out of China by discriminating against them in its technology licensing regulations. Now, it wants to take them to the international trade court to get Beijing to stop.
  美国辩称,中国的技术许可法规歧视美国科技企业,不公平地把它们拒之门外。现在,美国想就此向这个国际贸易法庭起诉,促使中国停止上述做法。
  Mr Trump has been a regular critic of the World Trade Organization. On Thursday, he said again that the US had been untreated unfairly by the body for years. But in a concession to allies like the EU and Japan, Mr Trump ordered US trade officials to launch a case against China over those licensing rules.
  特朗普经常批评世界贸易组织。周四,他再次表示,美国多年来一直遭到该组织的不公正对待。但在对欧盟(EU)和日本等盟友让步的同时,特朗普命令美国贸易官员就技术许可规则对中国提起诉讼。
  One wrinkle: the case is likely to take more than a year to litigate and it comes as the US is trying to force reform in the WTO’s dispute settlement system by blocking the appointment of new appellate judges.
  有个小问题是,可能需要一年多时间才能就该案提起诉讼,因为美国正试图通过阻挠任命新的上诉法官,强势推动世贸组织争端解决机制的改革。
  China is likely to retaliate
  中国可能会进行报复

  What has many trade experts concerned is the risk that the Trump administration’s tariffs could lead to a tit-for-tat retaliation between the world’s two largest economies.
  令许多贸易专家担心的是,特朗普政府的关税可能导致全球两个最大经济体之间展开针锋相对的报复行动。
  Trade in goods alone between the US and China was worth more than $635bn last year, with US companies exporting a record $130bn in products to China.
  去年,美中仅商品贸易额就超过6350亿美元,美国企业对中国出口产品总额创下1300亿美元的纪录。
  Beijing has made clear that it will not take any US action lightly and has already begun to point to potential targets such as Boeing aircraft and US soyabeans.
  中国政府已明确表示,将严肃对待美国采取的任何行动,并已开始提到如波音(Boeing)飞机和美国大豆等潜在还击目标。
  “China is the largest export market for US aircraft and soybeans, and the second largest export market for automobiles and cotton,” the Chinese foreign ministry pointed out on Thursday.
  “中国是美国飞机和大豆的第一大出口市场,也是汽车和棉花的第二大出口市场,”中国外交部周四指出。
  US soyabean farmers, who have been losing market share to Brazil in recent years, are particularly concerned. The US last year exported $14bn in soyabeans to China. With many US farm communities already suffering the impact of lower commodity prices even a 10 per cent reduction in that number could be painful.
  近年来不断被巴西夺走市场份额的美国大豆农场主们尤为担忧。去年,美国向中国出口了140亿美元的大豆。由于许多美国农业人口已因大宗商品价格下跌而受损,即便对华出口额下降10%,也可能给他们带来痛苦。
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