您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 旅游 >> 正文

只在此山中,云深不知处:尼泊尔的采蜜者

更新时间:2014-3-25 20:33:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Hunting Honey, and Trying to Hide
只在此山中,云深不知处:尼泊尔的采蜜者

Andrew Newey has made a career documenting vanishing cultures and traditions: Mongolian eagle hunters, ritualistic bull-jumping in Ethiopia and tribal festivals in Papua New Guinea. But the Indiana Jones-ish golden stills of his latest project, “Gurung Honey Hunters,” present a paradox, because photojournalists like Mr. Newey contribute to the tradition’s disappearance in central Nepal’s foothill villages and mountainsides.

安德鲁·纽维(Andrew Newey)兢兢业业地记录着一个个正在消失的文化和传统:蒙古的猎鹰者、埃塞俄比亚的跳牛仪式,还有巴布亚新几内亚的部落节日。但在他的最新系列作品“古隆族采蜜者 ”中,印第安纳·琼斯式的佳作却引发了一个进退两难的状况,因为,这项传统在尼泊尔中部山脚村庄和山上的消失,像纽维这样的摄影记者起到了推波助澜的作用。

Though it dates back millenia, honey hunting was a relatively unknown tradition until a 1987 National Geographic documentary enticed tourists, film crews and photographers to descend on the region. The biannual hunts gave way to staged tourist treks that can be added to Himalayan adventure package deals for upward of $1,000.

尽管已有几千年的历史,但采蜜一直是一个相对鲜为人知的传统,直到1987年,国家地理频道(National Geographic)的一部纪录片把大量游客、电影摄制组和摄影师吸引到了这个地区。这种一年两次的采蜜活动催生了一些短途旅行项目,它们可以被包含在喜马拉雅探险的旅行方案中,共需要1000多美元的费用。

Arriving in Nepal in October, Mr. Newey traveled the Kaski district in search of a hunt unsullied by mass tourism. Not until December did he find one, in a small village with a backdrop of snow-capped mountains – the name of which he will not reveal.

纽维是10月份抵达尼泊尔的,他在卡斯基地区游览了一番,试图寻找一个没有被大众旅游破坏的采蜜区。到了12月份,他终于在一个小村子里找到了这样的采蜜区,村子背后是积雪覆盖的群山——他拒绝透露这个村子的名字。

“If the name comes out, tourists will flock there,” said Mr. Newey, 35, “That would be a disaster.” After gaining the trust of villagers wary of cameras and the foreigners behind them, Mr. Newey accompanied more than a dozen on the three-hour hike down a mountainside to the base of a cliff, just one of a handful of honey-hunting locations in the area.

现年35岁的纽维说,“这个村子的名字如果被曝光,游客们会纷至沓来,那会是一场灾难。”这里的村民对相机和机器后面的外国人保持着警惕。在得到村民的信任之后,纽维和十几个人沿着山坡,徒步行走三小时,抵达了悬崖底部,这里只是该地区若干采蜜地点中的一个。

The hunt takes three days. First a sheep is sacrificed in the name of the cliff gods and prayers offered for a good harvest. The morning of the hunt, foliage is collected for small fires near the cliffside’s base to smoke the large Himalayan bees out of their nests. The third day, they return home with their harvest.

采蜜过程需要三天。首先要宰杀一头羊祭祀“崖神”,以祈祷丰收。采蜜的那天早上,人们收集了一些叶子,在悬崖底部生起了一堆堆小小的篝火,从而把大量的喜马拉雅蜜蜂熏出蜂巢。第三天,人们带着收获的蜂蜜回家。

Although the process of collecting the rich honey stored in the cliff is a group effort involving a dozen people, the man known as the cutter (shown in a photo wearing a beige bee suit given to him by a tourist) has the toughest job. After a 50-meter rope ladder is secured to the top and base of the cliff, he climbs up toting two seven-meter-long bamboo sticks known as tangos. With one sharpened tango, he slashes at exposed honeycombs while using the other – often balanced with a thigh or foot – to maneuver a hanging wicker basket and catch falling chunks.

尽管收集悬崖上大量蜂蜜的工作是一个需要十几个人参与的合作过程,但被称做“切割者”的男子(在一张照片中,一名切割者穿了一件游客送给他的卡其色防蜂服)的工作尤为艰难。在一个50米长的绳梯两端被固定在山顶和山崖底部之后,他需要带着两根七米长的竹竿爬上绳梯。这个竹竿也被叫做“tango”。他用其中一根削尖的竹竿抽打蜂巢,同时不断移动另一根竹竿上悬着的竹篮子——通常用大腿或脚保持平衡,从而接住掉下来的蜜块。

The cutter often misses the basket, leaving globs of fresh honeycomb splattered on the ground, which children scramble to devour. It is a physically grueling process for the cutter, who on Mr. Newey’s journey was 58 years old. The aging of traditional honey hunters and the migration of younger people to larger cities to accommodate tourists is also responsible for the tradition’s decline. The cutter on Mr. Newey’s journey was on loan, serving several neighboring villages whose veterans were too old.

篮子常常接不准,导致一团团新鲜的蜂巢在地上摔碎,这时,孩子们就会去争抢。对于切割者来说,这是一个极其辛苦的过程。纽维遇到的这个切割者已经58岁。传统采蜜人逐渐老去,以及由于游客的涌入,年轻人向大城市迁徙,也导致了这个传统的衰落。和纽维同行的这位切割者是临时调来的,他还在几个附近的村子工作,因为那里的经验丰富的人都太老了。

“When he gives up, there will be very few people experienced enough to take over,” Mr. Newey said.

“如果他不做了,几乎没有经验丰富的人来接班,”纽维说。

The tourism industry hurts because they lead to excessive harvests; they are supposed to occur only twice a year to allow for the bees’ return. The dwindling of rhododendrons, a result of paths cleared for tourist groups, is also to blame.

旅游业之所以成了心头之痛,是因为它引发了过量的采蜜;采蜜活动应该每年只进行两次,从而允许蜜蜂回巢。杜鹃花减少也是一个原因,而这都是为旅游团开辟旅行线路的结果。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表