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重新发现伦敦的地下之城

更新时间:2014-4-3 14:34:29 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Underground London
重新发现伦敦的地下之城

The British capital’s evolving skyline is as impressive as it is unusual. Consider the Shard, the 1,016-foot “vertical city” that topped out as Western Europe’s tallest building when it was completed in 2012, and 20 Fenchurch Street (a.k.a the Walkie-Talkie), which made headlines last summer when the glare from its cartoonishly flaring facade warped the panels of a Jaguar parked outside.

英国首都常变常新的天际线至今像往常一样令人印象深刻。想像一下夏德大厦,堪称一座1016英尺高的“垂直城市”,在建成的2012年荣膺西欧最高的建筑。还有芬丘奇街20号(也叫“对讲机大厦”[Walkie-Talkie]),去年夏天,这座建筑卡通般的闪耀墙面,因为反光将停在楼下的一座捷豹汽车的仪表板烤化,而上了媒体的头条。

Whereas Manhattan is built upon hard rock, London — ancient, sprawling, famously self-deprecating — has its roots buried in a bed of clay, sand and chalk, an unlikely foundation for high-rise grandeur. Rather, as the author Peter Ackroyd noted in “London Under,” “the geology of London is a clue to the labyrinth beneath”: a deeply layered palimpsest. During construction for the coming Crossrail subway, archaeologists have unearthed medieval ice skates, Roman skulls and prehistoric bison bones, all within 12 feet of the pavement. Meanwhile,  with sky-high property rates above ground, some of the city’s most innovative art spaces, restaurants, shops and bars have been springing up below street level.

曼哈顿是建在岩石上的,但伦敦这座古老、庞大并以自嘲著称的城市,根基却只是一片粘土、砂石和白垩岩,高层建筑在这里仿佛不可能的事。但是,正如作家彼得·阿克罗伊德(Peter Ackroyd)在《伦敦地下》(London Under)所言,“伦敦的荣光是暗示着一个地下的迷宫”:一种深不可测、层数众多的叠加结构。即将开通的Crossrail线地铁在施工过程中,考古学家们发掘出了中世纪的溜冰鞋、罗马帝国时代的人头骨和史前的野牛骨头,全部都在路面以下12英尺之内。同时,虽然该城有越来越多的高层建筑,但最有创意的艺术空间、饭店、商店和酒吧都开始向地平面下方发展。

Of course, Londoners have long possessed a downward-cast gaze. Take the Tube — the world’s first underground rail system, introduced just over 150 years ago. Its stations provided shelter when the city was blitzed during World War II; they’ve also displayed commissions by artists from Man Ray to Tracey Emin. Now, the Old London Underground Company is hoping to reopen 26 ghost stations as attractions. Think of elevator-shafts-turned-climbing-walls and 24/7 karaoke clubs where there were once secret war rooms. “There’s nothing more valuable in the world than looking into your old cupboards and finding a toy,” the company’s founder, Ajit Chambers, said.

当然,伦敦人很早以前就已喜欢将目光投向地下。以伦敦地铁为例,它是世界第一个地下铁道系统,150多年前都已投入使用。它的地铁站在“二战”的轰炸中曾是这个城市的避难所,站台里面还有从曼·雷(Man Ray)到崔西·艾敏(Tracey Emin)等多名艺术家的作品。现在老伦敦地铁公司(Old London Underground Company)希望将26个停用站点作为旅游景点重新开放。想像以下由电梯井改装成的攀爬练习墙,而战时的密室如今变成24/7随时营业的KTV厅。“世界上最有价值的事就是,打开古老的橱柜并发现一个玩具,”公司创始人阿吉特·钱伯斯(Ajit Chambers)说道。

In the fantasy novel “Neverwhere,” Neil Gaiman depicts an underworld invisible to “London Above,” where the tony neighborhood of Knightsbridge becomes an ominous Night’s Bridge. In reality, with the confluence of wealth in the area and the city’s notoriously restrictive planning laws (generally, those looking to expand their homes cannot build up or out — only down), it is prime territory for digging out multilevel “billionaire basements” to house, say, a tennis court and a personal car museum.

在尼尔·盖曼(Neil Gaiman)的奇幻小说《乌有乡》(Neverwhere)中,作者描绘了一个“地上伦敦”看不到的地下世界。时髦街区骑士桥在小说里变成了不详的“夜之桥”。事实上,鉴于大量涌入该地区的财富和伦敦以苛刻著称的城市规划法(通常来说,打算扩建房屋的业主不能向高空和外部发展,只能向地下扩张),在已有建筑中向下挖出几层“价值亿万的地下室”(比如网球场和个人汽车博物馆),是许多人的首要选择。

Following suit, a sleek, 85-room Bulgari Hotel opened here a year and a half ago with six subterranean floors for the restaurant, ballroom, cinema, spa and glittering glass-mosaic swimming pool, the jewel in an inverted crown. There’s even a plan to convert an underground parking lot in Bloomsbury into a budget hotel with 172 windowless guest rooms. Pending a green light, it’s one of many new schemes to repurpose parts of London often overlooked. Here are some of those projects, along with places you can visit now.

出于同样的打算,时髦漂亮、拥有85个房间的宝格丽酒店一年半之前在伦敦开业,酒店共有六层地下设施,容纳了饭店、舞厅、电影院、温泉浴场和一个贴满玻璃马赛克的梦幻泳池,堪称这个倒置王冠上的明珠。布鲁姆斯伯里地区甚至打算将一座地下停车场改建成一座经济型酒店,里面172间客房都没有窗户。这个正在等候审批的计划是众多计划中的一个,它们的目的都是重新发现伦敦被忽视的区域。以下地点有些来自那些计划,还有几个是已经向游客开放的场所。

Underground Art

地下艺术

Hailed as the “Eighth Wonder of the World” when it opened in 1843, the Thames Tunnel — forerunner of the Tube, burrowed by Marc and Isambard Brunel as an under-river path for horse-drawn carriages — was soon overrun by criminals and closed to pedestrians for nearly 150 years. Now, the Brunel Museum offers guided descents into the tunnel’s Grand Entrance Hall and plans to turn the sooty underground shaft into a proper amphitheater. Last year it started hosting concerts from the likes of the Pop-up Opera company, which will pop down again come spring.

1843年投入使用并被称作“世界第八大奇迹”的泰晤士河隧道是伦敦地铁的前身, 曾被Marc and Isambard Brunel公司借用,打算当作载人马车的水下通道,但隧道很快就被犯罪分子占领,大约150年前,不得不对行人关闭。现在,布鲁内尔博物馆的导游会带领游客步步深入,进入隧道的入口大厅。此外他们还将灰暗肮脏的地下操作井变成一家优雅的圆形剧院。去年以来,弹跳戏剧公司等机构开始在这里举办音乐会,明年春天该公司还会再次弹跳到这个地下剧场演出。

Countless passageways, many long abandoned, lie beneath London. Off the graffiti mecca that is Leake Street, under Waterloo station, an 18,000-square-foot labyrinth of disused rail tunnels will be opened later this month for Vault 2014 — a six-week immersive arts festival, Jan. 28 to March 8, with more than 60 acts (including a surrealist adaptation of “Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas”) and late-night parties. “It’s piercing the constructed armor of the city that delineates where you’re allowed to have your fun,” said the festival’s co-director, Tim Wilson.

伦敦地下潜伏着数不清的通道,许多都已废弃很久。涂鸦艺术圣地Leake Street不远处、滑铁卢地铁站的下方,有一个面积1.8万平方英尺、由废弃铁轨隧道组成的迷宫。这个迷宫将作为2014苍穹艺术节(Vault 2014)的一部分,在本月下旬对公众开放。苍穹艺术节是一个时长六周的沉浸式艺术活动,从1月28日持续到3月8日,有60多场演出(包括《拉斯维加斯恩仇录》[Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas]的超现实主义改编版)和多种深夜聚会。“它刺穿了城市所规定的你只能在哪些区域寻欢作乐的结构铠甲,”音乐节的联席导演蒂姆·威尔逊(Tim Wilson)说道。

The Establishment has been going underground, too. In 2012, Tate Modern unveiled the Tanks, a live art space occupying the former power station’s three subterranean oil chambers (while currently shut for the building of a 10-level extension above ground, they’ll reopen by 2016). And for its biggest exhibitions the Victoria and Albert Museum — which has long staged its cutting-edge shows in three rooms, housed in two 19th-century courts and separated by a corridor — has tapped the local firm Amanda Levete Architects to design an open-plan gallery about 60 feet below its new courtyard, all scheduled to open in 2017.

许多现有机构也开始向地下发展。2012年,泰特现代艺术馆推出了现场艺术空间“大池”(Tanks),占据了以前发电站位于地下的三层储油空间(目前这些储油空间因施工而关闭,这座建筑将在地上再建十层,2016年竣工并重新开放)。维多利亚和阿尔伯特博物馆(Victoria and Albert Museum)长期以来一直在两个位于19世纪庭院里、有走道隔开的三个展厅举办最先锋的艺术展。近期,为了推出自己史上最大的展览,博物馆特地与当地的阿曼达莱维特建筑师事务所合作,准备在新庭院地平面以下60英尺的位置设计一个开放计划画廊,预计2017年投入使用。

Another Victorian landmark, the 46,000-square-foot Shoreditch Town Hall, site of the inquest into Jack the Ripper’s last murder, has turned its maze of dilapidated basement rooms into a venue for experimental arts. Called the Ditch, it kicked off in July with a cabaret festival.

另一个维多利亚时代的地标,面积4.6万平方英尺、曾调查过开膛手杰克最后一桩谋杀案的沟岸区市政厅也已经将其废弃的、迷宫般的地下室改造成实验艺术的展览空间,名叫“沟渠”。去年7月开展,第一场活动是个歌舞狂欢节。

Under a parking lot nearby, archaeologists have discovered London’s second-oldest and best preserved Shakespearean playhouse: the 16th-century Curtain Theater, or the “wooden O” that premiered “Henry V” and “Romeo and Juliet.” “Digging down in London is like going back in time,” said architect John Drew, of Pringle Brandon Perkins+Will. With input from the Museum of London Archaeology, his firm is designing the Stage, Shoreditch — a large-scale regeneration plan including a 13,000-square-foot exhibition and performance space set to open around the excavation site within five years. Remnants of the theater will be displayed in-situ, 10 feet below ground.

附近一家停车场的地下,考古学家发现了伦敦第二古老且保存最好的莎士比亚剧场——16世纪的帷幕剧院(Curtain Theater),也叫“木头O剧院”(wooden O),里面曾首演过《亨利五世》(Henry V)和《罗密欧与朱丽叶》(Romeo and Juliet)。“在伦敦向下挖掘,就像逆着时光去旅行。”Pringle Brandon Perkins+Will建筑师事务所的建筑师约翰·德鲁(John Drew)说道。与伦敦考古博物馆确定了合作后,这家建筑师事务所正在对“舞台,沟岸”项目进行设计。那是一个大规模的翻新工程,包括1.3万平方英尺的会展和演出空间,大约五年内会在发掘地点竣工并投入运营。剧院的其他部分将在地下十英尺的位置做现场展出。

Restaurants Without a View

没有风景的饭店

More and more establishments have been inspired by their own underground histories. Last September, the Royal Academy of Arts opened its 19th-century Keeper’s House — never before accessible to the public — with a seasonal British restaurant designed by Sir David Chipperfield and Rolfe Kentish in the formerly unused basement. Previously the kitchen and scullery, it was, before that, the servants’ quarters, a beer store and a 17th-century crypt with a wine cellar, now a vaulted ladies’ room. In the dining area, with its cream-leather furnishings and 18th-century casts, the walls are lined with a billiard-table baize that stops short of the exposed-beam and brick-hearth soffits.

越来越多的建筑都被自己地下的历史深深鼓舞。去年9月,皇家艺术学院开放了19世纪看门人的住所,之前这里从未对外开放。在戴维·奇普菲尔德(Sir David Chipperfield)爵士和罗尔夫·肯迪斯(Rolfe Kentish)的设计下,这座建筑之前废弃的地下室,变成了一家季节性的英式饭店。以前的厨房和洗碗间(再往前是地下室和仆从宿舍)现在变成了有拱顶的女卫生间。就餐区有奶油色的真皮装饰和18世纪铸件,墙上钉着台球桌用的毡子,但暴露的梁木和砖石灶台并没有用任何东西遮蔽。

In Soho, the just-opened Coal Vaults is situated within a 19th-century subterranean coal storage facility. Here you’ll find low-lit, exposed-brick dining vaults and a copper-topped bar, plus small plates (deviled popcorn; venison sliders with shallot rings) and cocktail pairings.

苏豪区新近开张的煤库饭店前身就是一个19世纪的地下储煤设施。这里,你会发现灯光幽暗、砖石结构的就餐空间,镶着黄铜吧台桌面,还有各种小零食(挤了足量芥末的爆米花;搭配洋葱圈儿的小块鹿肉)和多种鸡尾酒搭配。

Nearby is Brasserie Zédel, which at first glance seems to be merely a small cafe from the owners of the Wolseley. Its street-level facade belies the 11,220-square-foot restaurant-bar-cabaret complex humming in the depths of the former Regent Palace Hotel, Europe’s largest upon opening in 1915. Down a grand, winding stairwell adorned with retro carpeting and vintage French posters, the brasserie — with its all-day, en français menu — is an Art Deco homage to its precursor via Jazz Age Paris. Gilded and marble-clad, it’s also part of a local restoration project overseen by the Crown Estate.

附近的泽达尔小酒馆乍看上去不过是Wolseley业主开的一家小型餐吧。与地面平齐的门面让人无法相信里面的餐饮和歌舞空间足有1.122万平方英尺,因为全部都位于以前摄政宫酒店的地底深处。摄政宫酒店1915年开业时曾是欧洲最大的酒店。走下一段宏大曲折装饰着复古地毯和法国古旧海报的楼梯,就进入了全天都有法式菜肴的餐馆。餐馆的装饰表达了对之前爵士时代巴黎装饰艺术的真诚致敬。内部镀金且镶嵌了大理石的这家餐馆,同时也是王室资产管理局在当地的一个翻新工程。

“We actively avoid the sites that most restaurateurs would describe as prime,” said Huw Gott, co-founder of Hawksmoor, a group of clubby British steakhouses mostly set below ground. Its latest location — a level-two spot on Air Street, near Piccadilly Circus — is an anomaly, but the windows have been blurred and darkened with stained glass. “The aim is for customers to come in and forget the outside world,” Mr. Gott explained. Previously a “dodgy strip club,” the Spitalfields cellar bar — which serves cheeseburgers with ox cheek (£9.50, or $15) in turquoise-tile dining alcoves — was a natural fit. “We like off-pitch,” he said.

“我们主动避开那些大多数饭店老板称为黄金地带的位置。”霍克斯莫尔的联合创始人霍夫·戈特(Huw Gott)说道。霍克斯莫尔是由一群英国餐馆组成的俱乐部组织,大部分成员餐馆都位于地面以下。它最新的一家店位于空气街的二层,皮卡迪利广场的旁边。作为一个不在地下的异类,餐馆特地用花玻璃将窗户弄得幽暗模糊,以降低亮度。“我们的目标是,顾客进来以后就彻底忘掉外面的世界。”戈特先生解释说。斯皮塔佛德地下室酒吧以前是个私密的脱衣舞俱乐部,现在则在覆满蓝绿瓷片、配色自然的包间里供应搭配野牛芝士的汉堡(9.50英镑,或15美元)。“我们都喜欢低调而与众不同的感觉。”

Apparently, so does the team behind the Attendant — a coffee shop in a Victorian “gentlemen’s loo” that had been lying unattended below Foley Street in Fitzrovia for half a century. After an industrial scrub, it reopened last year, offering almond-milk porridge, salt-beef bagels and Jaffa cakes, with bright-green barstools facing the original porcelain urinals. (The kicker: There’s no bathroom.)

显然,随从咖啡馆(Attendant)的团队也这样认为。这家咖啡馆位于菲茨罗亚区佛利街,由维多利亚时代的一座男厕所改建而成。在成为咖啡馆之前已经废弃了半个世纪。经过一番专业清洗之后,这个地方去年重新开业,供应杏仁牛奶粥、盐水牛肉百吉饼和甜橙蛋糕。鲜绿色的高脚凳,面对着原来的陶瓷小便池。(提示:咖啡馆里没有卫生间。)

Drop Til You Shop

尽情血拼

It’s been said that from a window in the Selfridges basement you could see a perfectly preserved Victorian high street. This is a myth, according to a spokesman for the department store, though the “sub” and the “sub-sub” — going nearly 200 feet below ground — did shelter 50 United States Army Signal Corps soldiers during World War II, with remnants of prison cells at the bottom. While they’re off limits to customers, the regular basement is now staging a six-week Festival of Imagination, through March 2, with a mirror-clad “Imaginarium” designed by Rem Koolhaas for talks by “imagineers” like the Swedish electronica band Little Dragon.

有人说,从塞尔弗里奇百货公司地下室的一扇窗户,你可以看到维多利亚时代一条保存完好的商业街。百货公司的发言人说,这个说法毫不可信,但从公司的地下再往下,大约200英尺深的位置的确有个避难所,在“二战”时期曾保护了50名美国陆军通信兵,隧道底部至今还残留着几家牢房。尽管平时这些地方顾客禁止入内,但在3月2日之前,地下室里会有一个时长六周的“想象力文化节”(Festival of Imagination),现场展览着伦姆·库尔哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)设计的镶嵌大量镜片的装置,还有许多“想象者”的演讲,包括瑞典电子乐队“小龙”(Little Dragon)。

In Shoreditch, the avant-garde fashion boutique Hostem has repurposed its cellar as the Chalk Room, a by-appointment store-within-a-store for bespoke offerings such as made-to-measure Casely-Hayford suits and custom umbrellas from Oliver Ruuger. Swathed in off-black chalk paint, the space — designed by the husband-and-wife team JamesPlumb with haunting one-off assemblages (including a restored 19th-century wardrobe, tipped to one side) — is itself worth a trip down the creaking, burlap-covered stairs.

在沟岸区,前卫时装店Hostem将其地下室进行改建,变成了“粉笔房”(Chalk Room),一个只允许预约顾客入内的店中店,提供量身定做的高档服装,比如卡塞利-海夫特(Casely-Hayford)品牌的西装和奥利佛·鲁格(Oliver Ruuger)品牌的定制雨伞。这家挂满彩色粉笔画的小店由夫妻团队JamesPlumb设计,满眼都是独特的搭配装置(包括一个翻新过的19世纪衣橱,头朝下摆在那里)。光是它的设计,就值得你走下一段吱嘎作响、覆着粗麻布的楼梯。

The otherworldly, appointment-only Late Night Chameleon Cafe (LN-CC) occupies the basement of a nondescript warehouse farther east in Dalston. Down a side alley and a dark flight, you step into a forestlike tangle of branches that opens onto a brushed-concrete Warmth Space, showcasing fashion-forward labels like Haider Ackermann, and a recently added Secular Space, one silver neoprene tunnel displaying futuristic bags and footwear. A colorfully lit, hexagonal passageway leads to the new Sound Space and mezcal bar, where this reporter attended an interactive music night featuring an improvised analog synthesizer set.

气质脱俗、仅限预约入场的深夜变色龙(Late Night Chameleon,简称LN-CC)餐馆位于伦敦偏远东部达斯顿一间普通仓库的地下室。走过一条偏僻的小巷,再走下一段昏暗的楼梯,就进入一个许多枝条构成的森林般的所在。里面的“保温空间”表面刷了水泥,这里展示着海德·阿克曼(Haider Ackermann)等前卫时尚品牌。店里近期新开的“世俗空间”是由银色氯丁橡胶做成的隧道,里面展示着未来主义的包袋和鞋子。走过一条灯火通明的六边形过道,就到了新开的“声空间”及麦斯卡尔酒吧。本文作者在这里参与了一场深夜互动音乐秀,内容包括即兴的模拟合成器演出。

Bottoms Up

干杯

Speakeasy-type bars have been cropping up all over town — below a Breakfast Club cafe in Spitalfields (ask to see “the mayor”) or a BrewDog in Shoreditch (UnderDog, downstairs, serves beer cocktails in addition to pints). Hidden under a juice bar in Covent Garden, the tiny, candlelit B.Y.O.C. (Bring Your Own Cocktail) requires guests to bring a bottle of liquor: the mixologist, pushing an antique trolley with ingredients from upstairs, will need it to fix your drink. B.Y.O.C. does not have an actual bar, or a liquor license.

近年来,伦敦出现了大量地下酒吧——要么设在斯皮塔佛德地区一家俱乐部早点餐馆的下面(主动说明要去“市长”)或沟岸区“酿酒狗酒厂”的地下(酒吧名唤落魄狗,需要走下一段楼梯,提供鸡尾酒形式的啤酒和大杯装的啤酒)。B.Y.O.C.酒吧(店名B.Y.O.C.是“自带鸡尾酒”的英文首字母)躲在科文特花园的一个果汁吧下面,规模小巧,用蜡烛照明,要求每名顾客都自带一瓶酒精饮料。调酒师推着一架堆满楼上调料的古典推车,来回走动并帮你调酒。B.Y.O.C.并没有物理存在的吧台,也没用卖酒执照。

Some feel that the trend is a bit overkill. “If I hear of another speakeasy coming up, I might literally have to kill myself,” said Mark Holdstock, owner of Bourne & Hollingsworth, a ’20s-style basement bar in Fitzrovia. In 2012, his team started converting a cellar on Goodge Street that, they soon discovered, was the home of a now-deceased vicar. They named the bar after him — Reverend J. W. Simpson — and kept the water-stained wallpaper and peeling paint, adding votive candles and a series of “sermons” on reviving forgotten spirits of another sort.

有些人认为这种趋势有点过热了。“如果我听说又一家地下酒吧开业,我也许只想自杀。”Bourne & Hollingsworth酒吧的老板马克·霍德斯托克(Mark Holdstock)说。Bourne & Hollingsworth是一家1920年代风格的地下室酒吧,位于菲茨罗维亚。2012年,他的团队开始对古奇街一个地下室进行改造,后来发现这里以前是一名过世牧师的住宅。他们用这位牧师的名字将酒吧命名为J·W·辛普森牧师酒吧(Reverend J. W. Simpson),并将洇满水渍的墙纸和即将脱落的壁画原样保存,又添加了祈愿蜡烛,以及旨在复兴这种将被遗忘的信仰的布道经文。

Nightspots like Disco in Soho have been fashioned as London’s latest see-and-be-seen escapes. At Disco, a ’70s-inspired underground boîte and private members club, you enter through a Pan Am-style lounge complete with airplane doors.

说到复兴,苏豪区1970年代风格的地下酒吧兼私家会员俱乐部迪斯科酒吧近期刚被评为伦敦最后的逃逸之所。里面甚至有一个泛美航空式样的接待区,有空姐在那里为大家签发登机牌(目的地:“曼哈顿,迪斯科”),然后带领大家穿过机舱门。进门以后,摇摆舞演员身着亮片和金银丝线,跳着熟悉的舞蹈。由香槟和伏特加兑成的鸡尾酒(350英镑,请考虑当前的经济背景),倒在体积巨大且闪闪发光的球形酒杯里。

On the opposite end of the spectrum: Ruby’s, situated under an old cinema sign in Dalston. Previously the kitchen of a Chinese takeout joint, it now serves seasonal cocktails in 1940s milk bottles. Nearby, the hipster favorite Dalston Superstore recently opened Dance Tunnel, spinning left-field house and techno under a pizza parlor. “People come in looking for the ‘secret entrance,’ ” said Dan Beaumont, a co-owner, though the venues sit down the road from each other. “Usually they end up trying to get into a storage cupboard.”

Ruby’s酒吧处在这种潮流的另一端。这家“位于地下的畅饮场所”设在达斯顿一家古旧电影院招牌的下方。它的前身是一家中国外卖餐馆的厨房,现在用1940年代风格的奶瓶供应季节性鸡尾酒。不远处,潮流人士最爱的达斯顿超市最近开了个“舞蹈通道”,在一家披萨店的地下演奏左派浩室和电子音乐。“人们来这里寻找秘密入口,”共同业主丹·博蒙特(Dan Beaumont)说道。顾客常常以为同一条街两侧不同地下酒吧互相连通,但“他们常常发现自己的探索在储藏间结束”。

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