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迪拜世界港口公司与“一带一路”接轨

  When China hosted the One Belt And One Road initiative summit in Beijing early last month, it not only used the summit to announce big new financing plans but also to reassure some countries that the global trade strategy would benefit China at their expense.
  上月初,当中国在北京举办“一带一路”倡议高峰论坛时,它不仅利用此次峰会宣布大手笔的新融资计划,还安抚了一些国家的担忧,即认为该全球贸易战略将以牺牲他们为代价使中国受益。
  Those misgivings have not troubled Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem, chief executive of DP World. He sees China’s massive reimagining of ancient Silk Road trade routes as a business opportunity that could help ameliorate the effects of slowing global economic growth. “The Chinese horizon is changing,” says Mr bin Sulayem, one of Dubai’s most senior officials.
  迪拜世界港口公司(DP World)的首席执行官苏尔坦艾哈迈德本苏拉耶姆(Sultan Ahmed Bin Sulayem)没有这种担忧。他把中国大举重塑古代丝绸之路贸易路线的举动视为一个商机,可能有助于缓解全球经济增长放缓的影响。“中国的眼界正在改变,”本苏拉耶姆表示。他是迪拜级别最高的官员之一。
  DP World has, for example, just seen off the first direct freight train from the UK to China. The train left in April on its three-week journey from DP World’s London Gateway, at the mouth of the river Thames, to Yiwu in eastern China, laden with British products ranging from whisky to pharmaceuticals.
  例如,迪拜世界港口公司刚刚发出了从英国到中国的首列直达货运列车。今年4月,该列车从迪拜世界港口公司位于泰晤士河口的伦敦口岸(London Gateway)出发,满载着从威士忌酒到药品等英国产品,经过3周时间抵达中国东部城市义乌。
  DP World aims to co-ordinate its global network with China’s projected $900bn investment for the One Belt, One Road project.
  迪拜世界港口公司力求将其全球运输网与中国预计投入“一带一路”项目的9000亿美元投资实现接轨。
  “We will work with the Chinese to prepare our ports to be ready,” Mr bin Sulayem says. “They need to build thousands of kilometres of rail network to make it work.”
  “我们将与中国人合作,让我们的港口准备就绪,”本苏拉耶姆表示,“他们需要建设数千公里的铁路网才能使整个网络运转起来。”
  Wage costs in China are spiralling by 20 per cent a year, says DP World, which has four joint ventures in the country. Such cost rises are pushing Beijing to locate export-oriented manufacturing in cheaper locations at home, such as Urumqi in north-west China, and further afield in Myanmar, Indonesia and Cambodia.
  在中国拥有4家合资公司的迪拜世界港口公司表示,中国的工资成本每年上涨20%。这种成本上升致使北京方面把出口导向型制造业放在国内成本较低的城市(比如位于中国西北部的乌鲁木齐),甚至境外的缅甸、印尼和柬埔寨。
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  “These areas are mushrooming and will produce for Europe and the west,” Mr bin Sulayem says.
  “这些地区像雨后春笋一般迅速发展,将为欧洲和西方生产商品,”本苏拉耶姆表示。
  One Belt, One Road’s maritime routes link China to Southeast Asia, India, and, via the Maldives, to Africa and on to Europe through the Red Sea.
  “一带一路”倡议的海上路线把中国和东南亚、印度连接在一起,并通过马尔代夫连接到非洲,穿过红海连接欧洲。
  Land connections include the main trans-Eurasian route via Kazakhstan.
  陆路连接包括通过哈萨克斯坦、横跨整个亚欧大陆的主要路线。
  Other rail networks link China to Iran and the Gulf, as well as to Pakistan by way of Afghanistan.
  其他铁路网把中国和伊朗、海湾地区、以及巴基斯坦和阿富汗连接在一起。
  The rail routes are expected to compete with air cargo, with the sea routes used for lower-value bulk trade. “We are on all those routes,” Mr bin Sulayem says.
  铁路有望与航空运输竞争,而海运路线用于价值较低的散货贸易。“我们经营所有那些路线,”本苏拉耶姆表示。
  DP World has about 20 terminals poised to take advantage of One Belt, One Road. These include six in South Asia and four in China, as well as others operating in Thailand, Vietnam, South Korea and Indonesia.
  迪拜世界港口公司约有20个码头可以受益于“一带一路”倡议。其中包括位于南亚的5个港口和位于中国的4个港口,还有位于泰国、越南、韩国和印尼的其他港口。
  DP World’s container terminals handled 64m twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) last year, compared with capacity of 85m TEU. It hopes to expand capacity to 100m TEU by 2020, dependent on market demand.
  去年,迪拜世界港口公司旗下集装箱码头的吞吐量为6400万TEU(20英尺标准箱),而吞吐能力为8500万TEU。取决于市场需求,该公司希望到2020年把吞吐能力扩大至1亿TEU。
  With plans to expand in Latin America, Russia and Africa, DP World’s focus on international markets is helping to mitigate a slowdown in its domestic activity.
  与此同时,迪拜世界港口公司计划在拉美、俄罗斯和非洲扩张业务,这一着重国际市场的策略正在帮助缓解国内活动放缓的影响。
  Currency fluctuations, weaker world economic growth and the fall in crude oil prices have combined to make business conditions more difficult.
  汇率波动、全球经济增长疲软、以及原油价格下滑,这些因素相互结合,导致商业环境更加艰难。
  Volumes at its Jebel Ali deep port, the largest marine terminal in the Middle East, fell by about 5 per cent in 2016, as Gulf governments’ spending cuts bit into regional trade. DP World says it expects this year’s volumes at the port to be stable.
  随着海湾地区各国政府的支出削减打击区域贸易,迪拜世界港口公司旗下中东最大的港口——杰贝阿里(Jebel Ali)深水港2016年的吞吐量下滑约5%。该公司表示,预计今年该港口的吞吐量将保持稳定。
  Among its overseas projects, DP World is advising on the Khorgos Eastern Gate terminal near the Chinese border with Kazakhstan, an important point on rail routes linking China to Europe. Trains have to stop there — where the former Soviet Union meets China — as the rail gauge changes.
  在海外项目中,迪拜世界港口公司正在为哈萨克斯坦靠近中国边境的霍尔果斯东门(Khorgos Eastern Gate)无水港提供咨询。这里是连接中国与欧洲的铁路上的重要节点。由于轨距变化,火车必须在这个前苏联与中国接壤的地方停下来。
  In a similar way to how the Jebel Ali Free Zone trade area helped transform Dubai into an entrepot for global trade, DP World hopes that the Khorgos agreement will build a “new Dubai” at China’s border with Kazakhstan.
  迪拜世界港口公司希望霍尔果斯协议将打造中哈边境上的“新迪拜”,就像杰贝阿里自由区(Jebel Ali Free Zone)曾帮助迪拜成为全球贸易的集散地一样。
  However, some observers think DP World could suffer if certain terminals on China’s new Silk Road become too successful.
  然而,一些观察人士认为,如果中国新丝绸之路上的某些港口太过成功,迪拜世界港口公司可能遭受损失。
  “There are risks to Jebel Ali’s growth should the developments at Gwadar in Pakistan lead to that port becoming a transshipment hub,” says Simon Kitchen, head of macro strategy research at Cairo-based investment bank EFG Hermes.
  “如果巴基斯坦瓜达尔港(Gwadar)的开发项目使其成为转运中心,那么杰贝阿里的增长会有一些风险,”总部位于开罗的埃及投资银行EFG Hermes宏观策略研究主管西蒙?基钦(Simon Kitchen)表示。
  Jebel Ali port and Jebel Ali Free Zone, DP World’s prime assets, have systems and infrastructure that have made them a success, says Mr Kitchen.
  基钦称,迪拜世界港口公司的主要资产——杰贝阿里港和杰贝阿里自由区——拥有的系统和基础设施使它们获得了成功。
  But Gwadar, being outside the Gulf, “is in a very good location, and if Pakistan can get the incentives right, it should thrive,” he adds.
  但他补充称,位于海湾地区之外的瓜达尔港口“地理位置非常好,如果巴基斯坦在激励方面把握得当,该港口会兴旺起来。”
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