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更新时间:2014-7-11 15:57:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In Ireland, 10 Years of Fresh Air

On the morning of March 29, 2004, global television crews gathered outside a Dublin restaurant stocked with celebrating lawmakers to witness what few thought possible in this welcoming land of brilliant but noxious pubs.


“We called it Ireland’s first smoke-free breakfast,” said Dr. Fenton Howell, Ireland’s national tobacco-control adviser. “It was the first day of our ban on workplace smoking — the first of its kind in the world — and there were some doubts that our cherished pubs would obey the law.”

“我们称它为爱尔兰的第一顿无烟早餐,”爱尔兰全国烟草控制顾问芬顿·豪厄尔博士(Dr. Fenton Howell)说,“它是我们在工作场所禁烟的第一天——是世界上第一个此类禁令——当时有人怀疑为我们所珍爱的酒吧怕是不会遵守这项法律。”

But obey they did. Within a month, according to health-ministry studies, there was 97 percent compliance in all workplaces, including Ireland’s then-7,800 “public houses.” Polls even showed an 80 percent approval of the ban among Irish smokers.


The ban “absolutely” increased tourism, said the Irish minister of tourism, Michael Ring, a devout smoker 25 years ago. “But as an Irish person, I thought this ban would never happen. It was just part of our culture — a drink and a smoke.”

爱尔兰旅游部长迈克尔·林(Michael Ring)说,这项禁令“绝对”促进了旅游业。林25年前是个坚定的烟民。“但是作为爱尔兰人,我曾经认为这项禁令永远也不可能实现。因为酒和烟是我们文化的一部分。”

Ten years later, amid anniversary celebrations by Ireland’s health community, the ban appears to have unquestionably improved lives. It has also motivated dozens of countries to copy Ireland’s legislation and forever altered an Irish institution that some thought impervious to change.


With stunning acceptance — not unlike Sweden’s switching overnight from driving on the left to the right in 1967 — Ireland’s pubs repainted their walls, tore out nicotine-laced carpets and hosed out decades of stench. Barkeeps, waiters and a legion of musicians hailed their newly smoke-free jobs.


“I don’t know any musicians who weren’t delighted,” said Eoin Glackin, 27, a popular indie folksinger-songwriter from Dublin. “I remember my first gig in Dublin at Slattery’s pub — solo guitar — and there was like a second roof of wispy, cirrus-cloud smoke in the place. It was beautiful, actually, but horrible to be breathing that crap for six, seven hours a night. It has hurt so many good voices over the years.”

“我认识的音乐家们都很高兴,”27岁的约恩·格莱金(Eoin Glackin)说。他是都柏林的一位受欢迎的独立民谣歌手兼创作者。“我记得第一次在都柏林斯莱特里酒吧(Slattery’s)现场演唱时——吉他独奏——那里像是还有一层由缕缕烟雾组成的屋顶。它真的很美,但是一晚上连续六七个小时呼吸这样糟糕的空气太可怕了。这么多年来它毁掉了不少的好嗓子。”

Few in the pub trade doubt that the smoking ban has coaxed thousands of nonsmoking Irish music fans into pubs they had previously avoided. John Strawn, an author and a golf-course architect from Portland, Ore., who visited Ireland often in the early 2000s, said that he would longingly walk Dublin’s Temple Bar district warmed by the fiery fiddles of the inviting pubs. “I so badly wanted to be in there,” he said, “but I couldn’t stomach the smoke. Now when I’m in Dublin, I listen to more live Irish music than ever before.”

酒吧业几乎没人怀疑禁烟令吸引了成千上万不吸烟的爱尔兰音乐迷们来到他们之前不去的酒吧。来自俄勒冈州波特兰市的作家、高尔夫球场设计师约翰·斯特朗(John Strawn)在本世纪初经常访问爱尔兰。他说自己渴望在都柏林的圣殿酒吧区漫步,被那里诱人的酒吧里传来的热情的小提琴声温暖着。“我特别想进去,”他说,“但是我受不了烟味。如今我去都柏林时,会比过去听到更多现场演奏的爱尔兰音乐。”

While the tourism industry has been pleased, Ireland’s medical establishment has been ecstatic.


The TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland, a Dublin-based health-advocacy group, released studies in 2013 showing a 26 percent post-ban reduction in heart disease throughout Ireland and a 32 percent decline in strokes, suggesting that over a decade the smoking ban may have saved more than 3,700 lives.

都柏林的健康宣传组织爱尔兰无烟研究所(TobaccoFree Research Institute Ireland)2013年发布的研究表明,禁烟后爱尔兰的心脏病发病率降低了26%,中风发病率降低了32%,10年禁烟挽救了3700多条性命。

The Vintners’ Federation of Ireland famously deemed the law “unnecessary, unworkable and unjustified” and predicted dire problems with enforcement, few of which have occurred. Pubs throughout Ireland and the United Kingdom did experience a well-publicized decline in the last decade — about 1,300 Irish pubs shut down — but researchers say that it is largely because of supermarket liquor sales, stricter drunk-driving laws and the changing entertainment habits of patrons younger than 40, not the smoking ban. The tobacco industry’s prediction of financial ruin for bars, restaurants and hotels, with a potential loss of 65,000 jobs, never came to pass.

爱尔兰酒商联盟(Vintners’ Federation of Ireland)曾宣称这项法律“没有必要,不可行,没道理”而出名,并预测了执法会带来的严重问题,而这些问题几乎都没发生。在过去10年里,爱尔兰和英国的酒吧的确经历了被广泛宣传的衰落——爱尔兰约有1300个酒吧关门——但研究者说这主要是因为超市销售酒类、酒驾法律更严格、40岁以下的顾客们改变了娱乐方式,而不是因为禁烟。烟草业预测酒吧、餐馆和酒店会遭受经济损失,会失去6.5万个工作岗位——它的预测从未成为现实。

“The tobacco interests do their best to make people think no one will obey the law and it will be total chaos,” said Dr. Stanton A. Glantz, a University of California at San Francisco medical professor and prolific anti-tobacco researcher.

“烟草利益相关者竭力让人们相信没人会遵守这项法律,它会导致彻底的混乱,”加州大学旧金山分校的医学教授、写过好几本书的反烟草研究者斯坦顿·A·格兰斯博士(Dr. Stanton A. Glantz)说。

“Ireland just did everything right,” he said. “Because of Ireland almost all of Europe is smoke-free today. They all figured, if Ireland can do it, any country can.”


Indeed, an array of countries from around the world have followed suit: Norway and New Zealand in 2004, Italy and Britain by 2007, India in 2008, Greece (with Europe’s heaviest smokers) in 2010 and Brazil in 2011. In July, Russia will join the crowd. A handful of states in the United States preceded Ireland — California, in 1995, was the first — as well as various cities, like Pueblo, Colo., and El Paso, Tex. Ireland’s next health target? Passive smoking at home and in cars, especially where children are present.


The Irish smoking ban not only transformed pubs, but also breathed new life into hotels.


“The ban has been a spectacular success,” said Stephen McNally, the president of the Irish Hotels Federation, which represents some 900 hotels and guesthouses. “We used to come home at night, and your clothes would have this horrible stench. Now our restaurants, hallways and bedrooms smell fresh.”

“这项禁令取得了惊人的成功,”爱尔兰酒店联盟(Irish Hotels Federation)主席斯蒂芬·麦克纳利(Stephen McNally)说。该联盟代表约900家酒店和旅馆。“以前我们晚上回到家,衣服上有那种讨厌的臭味。现在我们的餐厅、走廊和客房都空气清新。”

But not all Irish hotels are entirely smoke-free. The law allows hotels to permit smoking in certain rooms or designated floors. Mr. McNally estimated that about half of Ireland’s hotels are “100 percent smoke-free” but that this number is growing out of concern for maids’ health.


In far northwest Ireland, in rural County Mayo along the cold Atlantic, Terry McSweeney, who with his wife, Frances Kelly, owns Stella Maris Country House Hotel, said that their American guests heartily approve of the ban, but that he believes it may have hurt the rural food and pub trade.

在爱尔兰西北角、寒冷的大西洋沿岸的梅奥县,特里·麦克斯威尼(Terry McSweeney)和妻子弗朗西丝·凯利(Frances Kelly)开设了斯特拉·马里斯乡村家庭旅馆(Stella Maris Country House Hotel)。他说美国客人们衷心赞成这项禁令,但是他认为它可能已经损害了农村的食品和酒吧产业。

“As a result of the ban,” said Mr. McSweeney, a former Bostonian, “people started going to the take-aways to bring their hooch home, where they could watch soccer on the telly, and have their drink and smoke. As a result, tax revenue dwindled in rural Ireland, and some small villages started going down the tubes.”