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你应该了解的十大医学误区

    You'd think standard medical advice would be backed up by a lot of scientific research. But researchers recently found that nearly 400 routine practices completely contradict studies published in top journals.

    你可能会以为标准的医疗建议有大量科学研究做支撑。但研究人员近来却发现,近400项常规实践完全与发表在顶级期刊上的研究相矛盾。

    Of more than 3,000 studies published in The JAMA and The Lancet journals from 2003 to 2017, and The New England Journal of Medicine from 2011 to 2017, more than a tenth constituted a "medical reversal" : a phenomenon that came to The opposite conclusion from what doctors generally believe.

    在2003年到2017年发表在《美国医学会杂志》(JAMA)和《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)杂志,以及2011年到2017年发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上的3000多项研究中,超过十分之一构成是“医疗逆转”:一项结论与医生的普遍认知相反的现象。

    You end up having a sense of shame, said Vinay Prasad of Oregon Health and Science University, who authored the study. "Smart people with good intentions have been doing this for years. But they are wrong."

    “你到头来会有一种羞愧的感觉,”这项研究的构想者、俄勒冈健康与科学大学(Oregon Health and Science University)的维奈·普拉萨德(Vinay Prasad)说。“多少年来,一些怀着好心的聪明人一直在这么做。但他们是错的。”

    Some of these ideas have been firmly rejected, but not all. Prasad and his colleagues are now trying to understand how common discredited practices and ideas are.

    这些理念中的一部分已被坚决摒弃,但不是全部。普拉萨德和他的同事目前正设法了解不可信的实践和理念有多普遍。

    Here are 10 findings that contradict the once widely held theory.

    以下是10项与人们一度普遍持有的理论相悖的发现。

    Peanut allergies can occur regardless of whether a child has eaten peanuts before the age of 3.

    无论儿童是否在3岁前食用过花生,花生过敏问题都会发生。

    Pediatricians have long advised parents not to let their babies eat peanuts until they are three. Even children who had eaten peanuts before the age of one were no more likely to develop peanut allergies.

    儿科医生一直建议父母们不要让宝宝在3岁前食用花生。结果发现,即便1岁前食用过花生的儿童发生花生过敏的几率也并不会更大。

    Fish oil does not reduce the risk of heart disease.

    鱼油不会降低心脏病风险。

    The idea that fish fat could help prevent heart problems once seemed logical. People whose diets contain large amounts of fatty fish appear to have lower rates of heart disease. Fatty fish contains omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 supplements can reduce triglyceride levels, which have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Not to mention, omega-3 fatty acids seem to reduce inflammation, a key feature of heart attacks.

    鱼的脂肪有助于预防心脏问题的理念曾一度看似符合逻辑。饮食中包含大量多脂鱼的人患有心脏病的几率似乎更低。多脂鱼含有ω-3脂肪酸。ω-3补充剂可降低甘油三酯水平,而甘油三酯水平偏高与心脏病风险增大有关。更不用说,ω-3脂肪酸似乎可以减轻炎症这一心脏病发作的关键特征。

    But a trial involving 12,500 people at risk of heart disease found that taking omega-3 supplements daily did not prevent heart disease.

纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com

    但涉及1.25万有患心脏病风险者的一项试验发现,每天服用ω-3补充剂没能预防心脏病。

    The doll does not prevent pregnancy.

    少女背仿真娃娃不会防止怀孕。

    The dolls cry, need to be changed and hugged. The idea is that girls can learn how much care is needed to care for a baby. But a randomized study found that girls who were asked to carry "mock babies" actually had slightly higher rates of pregnancy than those who did not.

    这些玩偶会哭嚎,需要给“换尿布”还要“抱抱”。这种想法认为,这样女孩们就能了解照顾婴儿需要做多少事情。但一项随机研究发现,被要求随身携带“模拟婴儿”的女孩,怀孕几率事实上比没有这些玩偶的女孩稍高一些。

    Ginkgo products do not prevent memory loss and dementia.

    银杏制品不会预防记忆减退和痴呆症。

    Such supplements made from ginkgo biloba were popular in ancient Chinese medicine and are still being promoted as a way to protect memory. A large federal study published in 2008 made it clear that the supplement had no such effect. But ginkgo still drives $249 million in sales. Don't people understand?

    这类用银杏叶制作的补充剂在古代中医中使用很普遍,如今仍作为保护记忆力的一种方式推广。2008年发表的一项大型联邦调查明确显示,这种补充剂起不到这样的作用。但银杏依然拉动着2.49亿美元的销售。人们难道还没明白吗?

    When treating acute pain patients in the emergency room, a dose of oral opioids is no better than drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen.

    在急救室医治急性疼痛患者时,一剂口服阿片类药物并不比阿斯匹林和布洛芬这类药好。

    Yes, opioids are powerful. But a clinical trial suggests there are safer and equally effective alternatives for emergency room patients.

    的确,阿片类药物药效很强。但一项临床试验显示,对于急诊室患者,减轻疼痛尚有更安全且药效相当的替代选择。

    Testosterone treatment does not help older men retain their memory.

    睾丸酮治疗无助于年长男性保持记忆力。

    Some men have low testosterone levels and memory problems, and early studies suggest that middle-aged men with high testosterone levels appear to have better tissue protection in parts of the brain. Older men with higher testosterone levels also appear to do better on tests of psychological functioning.

    一些男性睾丸酮水平低,并有记忆问题,早期研究有迹象表明,睾丸酮水平较高的中年男性大脑部分区域的组织似乎保护得更好。睾丸酮水平较高的年长男性在心理功能测试中表现似乎也更好。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

    But a rigorous clinical trial has shown that testosterone is no better at helping older men avoid memory loss than a sugar pill.

    但一项严格的临床试验显示,在帮助年长男性避免记忆减退方面,睾丸酮并不比一粒糖片效果好。

    Keeping house away from dust mites, mice and cockroaches doesn't help prevent asthma attacks.

    让房间远离尘螨、老鼠和蟑螂无助于防止哮喘发作。

    If you or your child has asthma, the advice of leading medical organizations has always been to remove these pests from your room. The theory is that an allergic reaction to them may cause an asthma attack. But researchers reported in 2017 that intensive pest management had no effect on asthma attacks among children in homes that were sensitive to mouse allergens.

    如果您或孩子有哮喘,一流医疗组织的建议一直是去除房间里的这些害虫。其理论是对它们的过敏反应可能会导致哮喘发作。但研究人员2017年报告称,家中有儿童对鼠类过敏原较为敏感的,进行密集的害虫管理对于减轻他们的哮喘发作毫无作用。

    Pedometers and calorie trackers don't help with weight loss.

    计步器和卡路里追踪器对减肥没有帮助。

    In fact, dieters may be better off without digital help. After tracking 470 dieters for two years, those who carried step counts and calorie-tracking devices actually lost less weight than those who followed only standard recommendations.

    事实上,节食者没有数字设备帮助可能反而更好。在对470名节食者跟踪两年后发现,比起只遵循标准建议的人,随身携带步数和卡路里追踪设备的人事实上减掉的重量更少。

    Torn knee meniscus? Try physical therapy first, then surgery.

    膝盖半月板撕裂?先尝试物理疗法,再去做手术。

    An estimated 460,000 patients a year in the United States undergo surgery to repair cartilage in their knees that is often torn by osteoarthritis. The tear is painful, and many patients worry that the pain will continue without surgery.

    美国每年估计有46万名患者通过手术修复常因骨关节炎撕裂的膝盖软骨。撕裂很疼痛,许多患者担心如不接受手术治疗,痛感会一直持续下去。

    But when patients with torn meniscus and mild arthritis were randomized to six months of physical therapy or surgery, both groups improved, as much as they did.

    但在让半月板撕裂和轻度关节炎患者随机接受六个月的物理疗法或手术治疗后发现,两组患者病情都有好转,好转的程度也一样。

    If a pregnant woman's amniotic fluid breaks early, there is no need to deliver immediately.

    如果孕妇的羊水提前破了,不需要非得立即分娩。

    Sometimes, a few weeks before the due date, the membranes burst and the amniotic fluid suddenly overflows. Obstetricians worry that bacteria could invade the fetus's alway sterile environment and cause an infection. The doctor thought it best to give birth at once.

    有时,在预产期几周前,胎膜会破裂,羊水会随之突然溢出。产科医生担心细菌可能会入侵胎儿周围一直以来的无菌环境,从而导致感染。医生以为最好要立刻生下婴儿。

    But a clinical trial has found that if obstetricians carefully monitor fetuses while waiting for Labour to start naturally, the chances of infection are not greater. Babies born at the end of pregnancy are also healthier and less likely to suffer breathing difficulties or die than those born immediately after amniotic fluid ruptures.

    但一项临床试验发现,如果产科医生能在等待分娩开始自然发生的同时,仔细监控好胎儿,那么胎儿遭受感染的几率并不会变大。此外,比起羊水破裂后立即出生的婴儿,妊娠期满出生的新生儿也更健康,发生呼吸困难或死亡的几率都更小。

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