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中国扩大全球影响力的最新竞技场:北极

    Rovaniemi, Finland -- the arctic is melting, and China is seizing the opportunity to expand its influence to the north.

    芬兰罗瓦涅米——北极地区正在融化,而中国正在抓住这一机会向北部扩大自己的影响力。

    For China, melting ice offers two potential benefits: new sources of energy and faster shipping routes across the north of the world. For these purposes, China is cultivating a deeper relationship with Russia.

    对中国来说,冰层消融带来了潜在的两大好处:新的能量来源、以及横过世界北部的更快航运路线。出于这些目的,中国正在培养与俄罗斯更深层次的关系。

    3,000 miles from home, Chinese workers have been drilling for gas beneath the icy waters of the kara sea off Russia's northern coast. For the past five years, Chinese cargo ships have been tiptoing through ice-filled waters off the Russian coast every summer -- a new route Beijing officials like to call the polar silk road. Chinese shipbuilders recently launched the country's second icebreaker, the xuelong 2, in Shanghai.

    在距离家乡3000英里(约合5000公里)之遥的地方,中国工人们已经在俄罗斯北部海岸以外喀拉海冰冷的海水下钻探天然气。过去五年里,中国货船每年夏天都从俄罗斯海岸附近满是冰块的水域小心地通过——北京的官员们喜欢把这条新通道称为极地丝绸之路。中国造船企业最近将该国第二艘破冰船“雪龙2号”在上海下水。

    Aleksi Harkonen, Finland's ambassador for arctic affairs, said China's ambitions in the arctic were the same as those elsewhere. "China is seeking influence around the world," he said, "including in the arctic."

    芬兰北极事务大使阿列克谢·海尔克宁(Aleksi Harkonen)说,中国在北极地区的野心,与它在其他所有地方的野心一样。“中国在全球寻求影响力,”他说,“包括在北极。”

    The sino-russian partnership advances both countries' agendas in the region, at least for now. The partnership also comes against a backdrop of escalating hostility between China and the United States over trade, territorial claims and espionage allegations.

    中俄伙伴关系推进了两国在该地区的议程,至少目前是这样。这种伙伴关系也出现在中美两国在贸易、领土主张和间谍指控等问题上的敌对关系不断升级的背景下。

    Tensions between China and the United States are spreading to the arctic.

    中美之间的紧张关系正在向北极地区延伸。

    In April, the pentagon included an arctic section for the first time in its annual report to congress on China's military power, warning of China's growing presence in the region, including the risk of sending nuclear submarines there in the future.

    今年4月,五角大楼在提交给国会的中国军力年度报告中首次包括了有关北极的部分,并对中国在该地区不断增长的存在、包括可能在未来将核潜艇派往该地区的风险做了警告。

    At a meeting of foreign ministers in rovaniemi, a few miles south of the Arctic Circle, secretary of state Mike Pompeo this month attacked what he called China's "aggressive approach" in the region and pointed to Beijing's behavior elsewhere in the world.

    本月,美国国务卿迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)在位于北极圈以南几英里的罗瓦涅米召开的外交部长会议上,抨击了他称之为中国在该地区的“气势汹汹的做法”,还指出了北京在世界其他地区的所作所为。

    Many delegates took his remarks seriously. Analysts who follow China's activities in the arctic say Mr. Pompeo is exaggerating the nature of China's activities in the north. China has no military presence or territorial claims in the arctic. Its activities are currently limited to business and science.

    众多代表对他的言论颇不以为然。关注中国在北极地区活动的分析人士说,庞皮欧夸大了中国在北部地区活动的性质。中国在北极地区没有军事存在,也没有任何领土主张。它的活动目前仅限于商业和科学。

    But Beijing has many strategic benefits to gain from a warming arctic, and it is playing the long game. China has both the money and the ambition, and it can do so.

    但是,北极变暖能让北京获得许多战略好处,而且北京着眼的是长期博弈。中国既有钱又有野心,它有能力这样做。

    China is trying to put money into almost every country in the arctic. It has invested billions of dollars to extract energy from beneath the permafrost in Russia's northern yamal peninsula. China is working with Gazprom to develop gas in Russian waters. It is exploring for minerals in Greenland. China's telecoms giants are keen to team up with a Finnish company that wants to lay a huge new undersea Internet cable linking northern Europe and Asia.

    中国正试图把钱投向北极地区的几乎每个国家。它已经为从俄罗斯北部亚马尔半岛的永久冻土下开采能源投入了数十亿美元资金。中国正与俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)一起在俄罗斯海域开采天然气。它正在格陵兰岛勘探矿产。中国的电信巨头渴望与芬兰一家想铺设将北欧和亚洲连接起来的巨大新型海底互联网电缆的公司合作。 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

    China's approach to the arctic is not entirely new. Six years ago, China struck a free trade deal with Iceland, providing a huge market for one of the small country's main exports: fish. A Chinese company had proposed a partnership with Greenland to rebuild the airport, prompting Denmark to step in and fund the project. Another Chinese company proposed building a port for Sweden but failed because of diplomatic tensions between the two countries.

    中国在北极地区的做法并不完全是新的。早在六年前,中国就与冰岛达成了一项自由贸易协议,把一个巨大市场提供给小国冰岛的主要出口产品之一:鱼。一家中国公司曾提议与格陵兰岛合作重建机场,促使丹麦介入并为该项目提供资金。另一家中国公司曾提议为瑞典建设一座港口,但由于两国外交关系紧张而没能实现。

    Arctic countries cannot say no to investment. It's obvious, said Finnish diplomat herkkonen. "We want to make sure we know what China wants."

    “北极地区的国家不能对投资说不。这很明显,”芬兰外交官海尔克宁说。“我们想确定我们知道中国想得到什么。”

    Moreover, Chinese ships are sailing in the north sea. State-owned cosco has sent cargo ships across the arctic several times in the past five years and plans more voyages this summer. At the arctic BBS in Shanghai recently, a company official said the route through the arctic shortened the journey from Asia to Europe by 10 days compared with routes across the Indian Ocean and the Suez Canal.

    此外,中国船只正在北海的航线行驶。国有的中国远洋运输公司在过去五年里多次派货船穿越北极地区,并计划今年夏天进行更多航行。最近在上海举行的北极圈论坛上,该公司一名负责人说,与穿越印度洋和苏伊士运河的航线相比,经过北极地区的航线将亚洲至欧洲的航程缩短了10天。

    While the north sea route is still a difficult one to navigate, climate change is making it more navigable in a year. The arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average, and the average extent of arctic sea Ice fell to a new low in April, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

    尽管北海的航线仍是一条很难航行的通道,但气候变化正在让这条航道的一年中可航行时间变得更长。据美国国家冰雪数据中心(National Snow and Ice Data Center),北极地区变暖的速度是全球平均速度的两倍,今年4月北极海冰的平均范围降到了新低。

    Finally, and perhaps most importantly, China is partnering with Russia, the region's leading expansionist power, which sees the arctic as the key to its future wealth and power.

    最后,或许也是最重要的一点,中国正在与该地区的头号扩张主义大国俄罗斯结成伙伴,俄罗斯将北极地区视为其未来财富和实力的关键。

    It is an increasingly important relationship for China and Russia. Russia needs Chinese investment to exploit natural resources beneath the permafrost and turn its long arctic coastline into money, especially after Russia annexed Crimea in 2014 and the United States imposed sanctions.

    对中俄两国来说,这是一种日益重要的关系。为开采永久冻土下的自然资源,把本国漫长的北极地区海岸线变成金钱,俄罗斯需要中国的投资,尤其是在俄罗斯2014年吞并了克里米亚,美国对其实施制裁之后。

    So Russia's old wariness about competition in the arctic has become a new openness to China.

    所以,俄罗斯过去对北极地区出现竞争的谨慎态度,已变成一种对中国的全新开放态度。

    Although Russia and China could have been over the arctic resources and the influence of the natural rivals, but they have begun to cooperation, they know that only cooperate, can conquer the west, Washington's energy experts rigas agni, lattice (Agnia Grigas), says she recently wrote a book about gas and geopolitics. "China's energy needs and Russia's economic dependence on fossil fuel exports depend on it."<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>

    “尽管俄罗斯和中国本来可能是争夺北极地区资源和影响力的天然竞争对手,但它们已经开始合作了,它们知道,只有携手合作,才能战胜西方,”华盛顿的能源专家阿格尼娅·格里加斯(Agnia Grigas)说,她最近写了一本关于天然气和地缘政治的书。“中国对能源的需求,以及俄罗斯对化石燃料出口的经济依赖,都有赖于此。”

    President Vladimir Putin of Russia has met President xi jinping of China more often than any other foreign leader. Mr. Putin himself is personally courting Chinese energy and transportation infrastructure companies for investment in the development of Russia's vast arctic region.

    俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)与中国国家主席习近平见面的次数,已经超过会见其他任何外国领导人。普京本人正在亲自与中国能源和交通基础设施方面的公司拉关系,为俄罗斯广袤的北极地区的开发争取投资。

    In April, Mr Putin, together with Mr Xi, suggested in Beijing that the thawing of the north sea routes in Russian waters should be linked to China's huge infrastructure projects. Mr. Putin said it would create a 'competitive global route' linking much of Asia to Europe.

    今年4月,普京与习近平一起在北京建议,将俄罗斯海域内正在解冻的北海航线与“一带一路”的中国巨大基础设施项目连接起来。普京说,这会开创一条将亚洲大部分地区与欧洲连接起来的“具有竞争力的全球路线”。

    China has provided crucial financial support for large gas projects on the yamal peninsula. In return, China gets what it badly needs: energy for its voracious domestic market.

    中国为亚马尔半岛的大型天然气项目提供了至关重要的资金支持。作为回报,中国获得了自己迫切需要的东西:为需求极大的国内市场提供能源。

    Last summer, the first batch of liquefied natural gas was shipped to China via the north sea route. Chinese companies own 30% of the yamal gas project.

    去年夏天,首批液化天然气通过北海航线运往中国。中国公司拥有亚马尔天然气项目30%的股份。

    More partnerships are in the pipeline. China and Russia recently announced a joint research center to study changes in sea ice conditions along the north sea route, among other issues. Chinese state-owned poly group proposed in 2017 to build a new deep-water port in the Russian arctic port city of arkhangelsk.

    还有更多的合作项目正在酝酿之中。中国和俄罗斯最近宣布,将成立一个联合研究中心,研究北海航线沿线海冰状况的变化,以及其他问题。中国国有企业保利集团曾于2017年提议,在俄罗斯北极地区海港城市阿尔汉格尔斯克建造一座新的深水港。

    But China's relationship with Russia is complicated.

    但中国与俄罗斯的关系很复杂。

    China is building its second icebreaker capable of navigating polar waters. But, according to an analysis published in the pentagon's annual report to congress this year, Russia's main approach has been to lease out a much larger fleet of icebreakers to direct foreign ships through the north sea, and so has been less pleased with the competition from China.

    中国正在建造第二艘能够在极地水域航行的破冰船。但据五角大楼今年向国会提交的年度报告中发表的一份分析报告,俄罗斯的主要做法是将规模大得多的破冰船舰队租出去,引导外国船只通过北海航道,所以对来自中国的竞争不太高兴。

    Russia strongly opposes any foreign icebreaker crossing the waterway it currently dominates.

    俄罗斯强烈反对任何外国破冰船可以从目前由它主导的这条航道通过。

    Not only that, the Russian military is flexing its muscles in the region, restoring cold war bases on its northern coast and modernizing its nuclear submarines.

    不仅如此,俄罗斯军方也正在该地区展示实力,恢复其北部海岸的冷战时期军事基地,并对自己的核潜艇进行现代化改造。

    China has said it wants to build a deep-water navy to protect its expanding interests around the world. This means that where China is making strategic investments, the Chinese navy is likely to follow.

    中国已经表示要建立一支深水海军,以保护其在全球不断扩大的利益。这意味着,在有中国进行战略投资的地方,中国海军很可能会跟随而来。

    But China, with its long-term game in mind, may be able to afford to wait. If the sea ice continues to recede, more of the arctic will be navigable, making it harder for Russia to dominate the far northern waters.

    但着眼于长期博弈的中国或许等得起。如果海冰继续消退,北极地区的更大部分将可以通航,这将让俄罗斯更加难以统治遥远的北部水域。

    Heather a. Conley, A fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, is one of the authors of A report on China's arctic ambitions. For too long, she says, the United States has ignored the arctic. She believes Washington should expand its presence in the region and work with the international BBS, which brings together governments in the region.

    华盛顿战略与国际研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)研究员希瑟·A·康利(Heather A. Conley)是一份有关中国在北极野心的报告的作者之一。她说,长久以来,美国忽视了北极地区。她认为,华盛顿应该扩大美国在该地区的存在,并应与把该地区的各国政府召集在一起的国际论坛合作。

    Otherwise, she warned in congressional testimony this month, "the opportunities and influence of the United States in the arctic region will diminish, and our Allies and partners in the region will increasingly accommodate the policy outcomes favored by Russia and China."

    她本月在国会作证时警告说,否则,“美国在北极地区的机会以及对该地区的影响将减少,我们在该地区的盟友和合作伙伴将越来越多地顺应俄罗斯及中国倾向的政策结果。”

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