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你应该了解的十大常见科学误区

  We take the first week of April as an opportunity to clarify the various misconceptions about health and science that are circulating throughout the year. Some of them are from the confusion that reporters in the Science section of the New York Times have repeatedly encountered. Others come directly from our readers who submitted the most misunderstandings to us on our science page on Facebook.

  我们以4月的第一周为契机,澄清一年四季流传的各种关于健康和科学的流行错误观念。其中一些是源于《纽约时报》科学栏目记者们反复遇到的困惑。另一些则直接来自我们的读者,他们向我们在Facebook上的科学页面提交了最令他们感到困扰的误解。

  Misconception: The universe begins somewhere.

  错误观念:宇宙始于某个地方。

  “Where did the Big Bang happen?” This is a problem often encountered by Dennis Overbye, a journalist for the New York Times.

  “宇宙大爆炸发生在哪里?”这是《纽约时报》宇宙科学记者丹尼斯·奥弗比(Dennis Overbye)经常遇到的问题。

  Fact: The big bang did not happen at one location; it was happening at a time.

  事实:大爆炸不是发生在一个地点;它是发生在一个时间。

  Read this article at your location in the center of the universe. (You will find that this is not a joke on April Fool's Day.)

  在你位于宇宙中心的位置阅读这篇文章。(你会发现,这不是愚人节的玩笑。)

  Misconception: In the lifetime of many of us, the power of computers will exceed that of humans.

  错误观念:在我们很多人的有生之年,计算机的能力将超过人类。

  Fact: Reporter John Markoff writes that most researchers say that you won't be eliminated for a long time, and may never be.

  事实:记者约翰·马尔科夫(John Markoff)写道,大多数研究人员说,你在很长一段时期里都不会被淘汰,可能永远都不会。

  Misconception: Moderate exercise can strengthen bones.

  错误观念:适度锻炼可以强健骨骼。

  Many public health organizations and health websites are promoting this exercise prescription and promise it to avoid osteoporosis. Sounds too good to be true. Gina Kolata, a New York Times medical journalist, wrote that it really shouldn't be believed.

  许多公共健康组织和健康网站都在推广这种运动处方,并承诺它可以避免骨质疏松。听起来好得让人难以置信。《纽约时报》医学记者吉娜·科拉塔(Gina Kolata)写道,的确不应该相信。

    蛐蛐英语 www.qqenglish.com

  Fact: Moderate exercise has little effect on bone strength.

  事实:适度锻炼对骨骼强度几乎没有影响。

  Misconception: This is nothing more than a theory.

  错误观念:这无非是一个理论。

  When everyone has their own theories, real scientific theories like evolution will be hit. Theory is neither intuition nor speculation. They are the jewels of the science crown, writes by journalist Carl Zimmer.

  当所有人都有自己的理论时,像进化论这样真正的科学理论就会受到打击。理论既不是直觉也不是猜测,它们是科学皇冠上的宝石,记者卡尔·齐默(Carl Zimmer)写道。

  Misconception: Because there is snow in my yard, climate change is not true.

  错误观念:因为我的院子里有雪,所以气候变化不是真的。

  Fact: Justin Gillis, a journalist, wrote that the people who said this confused the climate and the weather.

  事实:记者贾斯汀·吉利斯(Justin Gillis)写道,说这话的人是混淆了气候和天气。

  Related misconceptions: Global warming “suspended” means that climate change is nonsense.

  相关错误观念:全球变暖“暂停”意味着气候变化是胡扯。

  Reporter John Schwartz writes whether global warming will be suspended for more than a decade, regardless of the scientific rationality behind climate change.

  记者约翰·施瓦茨(John Schwartz)写道,全球变暖是否会暂停十几年左右,与气候变化背后的科学合理性无关。

  This is like saying that a temporary decline in the stock market means that the best long-term investment strategy is to hide cash under the mattress.

  这就好比说,股市暂时下跌意味着最好的长期投资策略是把现金藏在床垫下。

  Misconception: In the asteroid belt, the spacecraft must avoid a series of rocks on the way.

  错误观念:在小行星带中,宇宙飞船必须躲避迎面而来的一连串岩石。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  Atari's Asteroids is one of the most exciting early arcade video games. You can manipulate and rotate a small triangular spacecraft to blow up the space rock into pieces, until it is inevitably hit by asteroids into linear fragments. Similarly, many movies rely on the action of avoiding asteroids to create highly dramatic scenes.

  雅达利(Atari)的《爆破彗星》(Asteroids)是最精彩的早期街机电子游戏之一。你可以操纵并旋转一艘小型三角形宇宙飞船,将太空岩石炸成碎片,直到最后不可避免地被小行星撞成线状碎片。同样,许多电影也依赖于躲避小行星的动作来创造高度戏剧性的场景。

  Reporter Kenneth Chang explores how much space rock is encountered in the asteroid belt. It turns out that very few, Han Solo is safe even if you take a nap.

  记者肯尼斯·张(Kenneth Chang)探究了在小行星带中到底会遇到多少太空岩石。事实证明——非常少,韩·索罗(Han Solo)就算打个盹也是安全的。

  Misconception: The deciduous teeth are not important.

  错误观念:乳牙不重要。

  What's the big deal for a child to have a tooth decay? Anyway, those teeth will fall. The New York Times health journalist Catherine Saint Louis heard a lot of these words.

  “小孩子得蛀牙有什么大不了的?反正那些牙也会掉下来。”《纽约时报》的健康记者凯瑟琳·圣路易斯(Catherine Saint Louis)听到过很多这样的话。

  Fact: Neglecting deciduous teeth can make children suffer from dental problems throughout their lives.

  事实:忽视乳牙会让孩子一生都受牙疾困扰。

  Misconception: Indiscriminately must be a mentally ill person.

  错误观念:滥杀者一定是精神病患者。

  Fact: Indiscriminate killers are usually outside the current category of mental illness, and there is often little evidence that early treatment can help prevent their attacks. In this gloomy but thought-provoking article, Benedict Carey writes that terrorists are less likely to have mental disorders.

  事实:滥杀者通常不属于现有的精神疾病范畴,而且通常很少有证据表明早期治疗有助于预防他们的袭击。本尼迪克特·凯里(Benedict Carey)在这篇阴郁但发人深省的文章中写道,恐怖分子存在精神不正常问题的可能性就更低了。

  Misconception: oral sex does not lead to sexually transmitted diseases

  错误观念:口交不会导致性病

  Most people - about 71% - think that oral sex is also "sex." But many people, especially young people, don't seem to realize that it is possible to get a sexually transmitted disease in this way.

  大多数人——大约71%——认为口交也是“性”。但许多人,尤其是年轻人,似乎没有意识到,通过这种方式确实有可能感染性病。

  Reporter Jan Hoffman analyzed data on oral sex and sexually transmitted diseases in detail.

  记者简·霍夫曼(Jan Hoffman)详细分析了口交和性病的相关数据。

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