The second great penguin population in Antarctica collapsed in 2016, with more than 10,000 chicks dying and its population still recovering, according to a new study.
Satellite images show, many adult penguins moved to nearby area, but the fact is that in the considered their activities within the scope of the security area, the emperor penguin is still fragile, this raises serious concerns for a long time, the paper's co-author, Cambridge, the British Antarctic Survey (British Antarctic Survey), director of conservation biology Phil larson (Phil Trathan) said.
卫星图像显示，许多成年企鹅移居到了附近地区，但事实是，在被认为是它们活动范围内最安全的区域，帝企鹅仍然很脆弱，这引发了严峻的长期担忧，这篇论文的合著者、英国剑桥的英国南极调查局(British Antarctic Survey)保护生物学的负责人菲尔·特拉森(Phil Trathan)说。
This means that these places are not as safe as we thought, Mr. Trassen said.
The British Antarctic survey's research team said in a statement that Harley bay's habitat had all but disappeared.
Emperor penguins -- the world's largest penguins -- breed and moult on large chunks of frozen sea ice. They are clumsy on land and unable to climb ice cliffs, making them vulnerable to warmer weather and strong winds sweeping across the ice. Affected by the strongest el nino in 60 years, September 2015 was a particularly strong month for storms in the Halley bay region of Antarctica, with high winds and record low sea ice.
Starting in April, penguins usually stay there until December, when their chicks are a little bigger or have feathers. But they weren't big enough when the storm happened.
These conditions appear to have caused about 14,500 to 25,000 eggs or chicks to die in their first year, and the population has yet to recover, trassen said. The three-year decline was unprecedented, the study said: "three years of almost complete reproductive failure."
Still, Mr. Trassen said that Harley bay's population represents only about 8 percent of the world's emperor penguins, so the loss does not pose a threat to their future. He says there are between 130,000 and 250,000 breeding pairs of king penguins in 54 habitats around the world.
He said British researchers had been studying penguins in the area since 1956 but had never seen such a large decline.
Other scientists predict a sharp decline in emperor penguins by the end of the century because of climate change. Stephanie Jenouvrier, an associate researcher at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, predicts a global decline of 30 percent over the next few decades. She said her model did not include a major event like the 2015 storm season, which would likely make things worse.
其他科学家预测，由于气候变化，到本世纪末，帝企鹅的数量将急剧下降。马萨诸塞州伍兹霍尔海洋研究所(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)的副研究员斯蒂芬妮·杰诺威耶(Stephanie Jenouvrier)预测，未来几十年在全球范围内将下降30％。她说，她的模型还没有包括2015年风暴季这样的重大事件，这很可能会让情况变得更糟。
Some researchers said they were encouraged by satellite evidence that many penguins were able to migrate 35 miles to the south to a colony called dawson-lamton, where the population has increased more than tenfold in the past few years.
It's a very big migration, and after an extreme event, there are huge Numbers of penguins that can move between two groups, genoville said. "I think it's really cool to be able to see that."
Heather Lynch, an associate professor of ecology and evolution at Stony Brook University in New York, said the migration was "highly likely" and suggested that the animals could adapt to climate change, at least in the short term. In past models, she said, researchers often assumed the penguins could not find another home.
纽约州立大学石溪分校(Stony Brook University)研究生态学与进化的副教授希瑟·林奇(Heather Lynch)认为，这种迁徙“可能性非常大”，它表明这些动物至少在短期内能够适应气候变化。她说，在过去的模型中，研究人员常常假设企鹅无法找到另一个家。
My hope is that there are other shelters that will allow them to move in, at least for a while, and perhaps buffer some of the most significant effects of climate change. Lynch said.
The new study also shows the ability of satellite data to track species in some of the most inaccessible places on earth. "At least we have a way to monitor these birds from more remote parts of the world," she said.
Still, the decline in Harley bay's penguin population is worrying because it is happening fast, rather than gradually, in the face of climate change.
You don't know how close you are until it's too late, Mr. Lynch said. "you can't assume that when you get there, you'll be able to walk back up the cliff."