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南极帝企鹅的危机

  The second great penguin population in Antarctica collapsed in 2016, with more than 10,000 chicks dying and its population still recovering, according to a new study.

  一项新研究显示,南极第二大帝企鹅种群在2016年锐减,超过1万只企鹅幼崽死亡,其种群数量至今仍未恢复。

  Satellite images show, many adult penguins moved to nearby area, but the fact is that in the considered their activities within the scope of the security area, the emperor penguin is still fragile, this raises serious concerns for a long time, the paper's co-author, Cambridge, the British Antarctic Survey (British Antarctic Survey), director of conservation biology Phil larson (Phil Trathan) said.

  卫星图像显示,许多成年企鹅移居到了附近地区,但事实是,在被认为是它们活动范围内最安全的区域,帝企鹅仍然很脆弱,这引发了严峻的长期担忧,这篇论文的合著者、英国剑桥的英国南极调查局(British Antarctic Survey)保护生物学的负责人菲尔·特拉森(Phil Trathan)说。

  This means that these places are not as safe as we thought, Mr. Trassen said.

  “这意味着这些地方并不像我们之前认为的那么安全,”特拉森说。

  The British Antarctic survey's research team said in a statement that Harley bay's habitat had all but disappeared.

  英国南极调查局的研究小组在一份声明中称,哈雷湾的栖息地几乎消失了。

  Emperor penguins -- the world's largest penguins -- breed and moult on large chunks of frozen sea ice. They are clumsy on land and unable to climb ice cliffs, making them vulnerable to warmer weather and strong winds sweeping across the ice. Affected by the strongest el nino in 60 years, September 2015 was a particularly strong month for storms in the Halley bay region of Antarctica, with high winds and record low sea ice.

  帝企鹅——世界上最大的企鹅——在大块被冻住的海冰上繁殖和换毛。它们在陆地上很笨拙,无法攀爬冰崖,因此很容易受到气候变暖和大风掠过冰面的影响。受60年来最强的厄尔尼诺现象影响,2015年9月是南极洲哈雷湾地区暴风雨特别强的一个月,狂风四起,海冰创下历史新低。

  Starting in April, penguins usually stay there until December, when their chicks are a little bigger or have feathers. But they weren't big enough when the storm happened.

  从4月开始,企鹅一般就会在那里待到12月,等它们的幼崽长大一点,或者长出羽毛。但风暴发生时它们还不够大。

纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com

  These conditions appear to have caused about 14,500 to 25,000 eggs or chicks to die in their first year, and the population has yet to recover, trassen said. The three-year decline was unprecedented, the study said: "three years of almost complete reproductive failure."

  特拉森说,这些情况似乎已经导致大约14500到25000只蛋或雏鸟在第一年就夭折了,它们的种群至今没有复苏。该研究称,三年的下降是前所未有的:“繁殖几乎完全失败的三年。”

  Still, Mr. Trassen said that Harley bay's population represents only about 8 percent of the world's emperor penguins, so the loss does not pose a threat to their future. He says there are between 130,000 and 250,000 breeding pairs of king penguins in 54 habitats around the world.

  尽管如此,特拉森说,哈雷湾的企鹅群体只占世界帝企鹅数量的8%左右,因此,这一损失不会对帝企鹅的未来构成威胁。他说约有13万到25万对可繁衍后代的帝企鹅生活在全世界54个栖息地。

  He said British researchers had been studying penguins in the area since 1956 but had never seen such a large decline.

  他说,自1956年以来,英国研究人员一直在研究该地区的企鹅,但从未见过如此大规模的减少。

  Other scientists predict a sharp decline in emperor penguins by the end of the century because of climate change. Stephanie Jenouvrier, an associate researcher at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, predicts a global decline of 30 percent over the next few decades. She said her model did not include a major event like the 2015 storm season, which would likely make things worse.

  其他科学家预测,由于气候变化,到本世纪末,帝企鹅的数量将急剧下降。马萨诸塞州伍兹霍尔海洋研究所(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)的副研究员斯蒂芬妮·杰诺威耶(Stephanie Jenouvrier)预测,未来几十年在全球范围内将下降30%。她说,她的模型还没有包括2015年风暴季这样的重大事件,这很可能会让情况变得更糟。

  Some researchers said they were encouraged by satellite evidence that many penguins were able to migrate 35 miles to the south to a colony called dawson-lamton, where the population has increased more than tenfold in the past few years.

  一些研究人员表示,卫星证据显示,许多企鹅能够迁徙到南方35英里(约合56公里)外的一个名为道森-拉姆顿的栖息地,过去几年,那里的企鹅数量增加了十倍以上,这让他们感到鼓舞。

  It's a very big migration, and after an extreme event, there are huge Numbers of penguins that can move between two groups, genoville said. "I think it's really cool to be able to see that."

  “这是一次非常大的迁徙,在一次极端事件之后,还有数量庞大的企鹅能在两个群落之间移动,”杰诺威耶说,“我认为能够看到这一点非常酷。”

  Heather Lynch, an associate professor of ecology and evolution at Stony Brook University in New York, said the migration was "highly likely" and suggested that the animals could adapt to climate change, at least in the short term. In past models, she said, researchers often assumed the penguins could not find another home.

  纽约州立大学石溪分校(Stony Brook University)研究生态学与进化的副教授希瑟·林奇(Heather Lynch)认为,这种迁徙“可能性非常大”,它表明这些动物至少在短期内能够适应气候变化。她说,在过去的模型中,研究人员常常假设企鹅无法找到另一个家。

  My hope is that there are other shelters that will allow them to move in, at least for a while, and perhaps buffer some of the most significant effects of climate change. Lynch said.

  “我的希望是,还有一些避难所在至少一段时间内可以让它们搬过去,这样或许可以缓冲气候变化带来的一些最显著的影响。”林奇说。

  The new study also shows the ability of satellite data to track species in some of the most inaccessible places on earth. "At least we have a way to monitor these birds from more remote parts of the world," she said.

  这项新研究还显示了在地球上最难到达的地区,卫星数据追踪物种的能力。“至少我们有办法监视这些来自世界上比较偏远地方的鸟类,”她说。

  Still, the decline in Harley bay's penguin population is worrying because it is happening fast, rather than gradually, in the face of climate change.

  尽管如此,哈雷湾的企鹅数量下降仍然令人担忧,因为在面对气候变化时,它的下降速度很快,而不是逐步减少。

  You don't know how close you are until it's too late, Mr. Lynch said. "you can't assume that when you get there, you'll be able to walk back up the cliff."

  “你不会知道自己离悬崖有多近,直到为时已晚,”林奇说,“你也不能想当然地认为当你到走到那里时,还能从悬崖上走回来。”

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