New York - New York City has always been a towering city. But with 16 buildings over 500 feet tall scheduled to be completed this year, 2019 could be the most active year for the city's new skyscrapers.
The city's skyline was dominated by the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building for more than 1,000 feet in the early 1930s. But for most of the past decade, the skyline of New York has been constantly changing.
这座城市的天际线被帝国大厦(Empire State Building)和克莱斯勒大厦(Chrysler Building)主宰了许多年，这两座建于1930年代初的建筑高度都超过了1000英尺。但是近十年的大部分时间里，纽约的地平线一直都在不断变化。
Of the tall buildings already built in New York City, nine are more than 1,000 feet high, seven of which were built after 2007. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, a non-profit organization based in Chicago that tracks and evaluates high-rise buildings, there are 16 such high-rises – nearly twice the current number – - Being planned or under construction.
纽约市内已经建成的高楼中，有九座超过1000英尺高，其中七座建于2007年以后。据总部位于芝加哥、追踪和评估高层建筑的非营利性机构世界高层建筑与都市人居学会(Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat)，还有16座这样的高楼——将近两倍于现在的数量——正在计划或建设中。
This round of new construction waves is unprecedented.
The New York skyline looks a lot different than it was a decade ago. Redrawing it is the large Hudson Yards project in Manhattan's West End, the high-rises on the Midtown's Billionaires' Row and surrounding clusters, and One World by the World Trade Center (One World) Trade Center) leads the revival of Lower Manhattan. The recent re-planning in the Midtown East will cut more strange silhouettes of the city skyline. Luxury apartment high-rise buildings will soon set new heights in Brooklyn and Queens.
纽约的天际线看起来与十年前相比已经大为不同。重绘它的是曼哈顿西区的哈德逊园区(Hudson Yards)大型项目、中城“亿万富豪街”(Billionaires’ Row)上和周围群簇的高楼以及由世界贸易中心一号大楼(One World Trade Center)引领的曼哈顿下城的复兴。最近中城东区在进行的重新规划将为城市天际线剪出更多陌生的剪影。豪华公寓高层建筑也将很快在布鲁克林和皇后区刷新出新的高度。
Why is it now? From technological advances to speculative booms in luxury apartments, a combination of factors has encouraged developers to take higher floors and take advantage of old urban planning provisions that cannot keep up with construction technology breakthroughs. Some people think that these planned loopholes are also resources that can be developed. Just like the buildings that captured the imagination of New York before a generation, new office buildings are rising, but they can only be divided equally with those millions of apartment buildings.
Crack in the skyline
The new skyline is amazing, in part because of the speed of new entrants. In 1931, in a highly contested, three-pronged race, the Empire State Building stood out at 1,250 feet with the rigorously protected spire, surpassing the recently completed Chrysler Building (1047 feet). And a tall building (927 feet) on the 40th Wall Street, now known as the Trump Building.
This record has never been broken, and the skyline remains almost the same until 1972 when the World Trade Center was completed, reaching a new height of 1,368 feet.
这个纪录一直无人打破，天际线几乎保持着原样，直到1972年世贸大厦(World Trade Center)落成，达到了1368英尺的新高度。
When the World Trade Twin Towers collapsed in 2001, the entire city was mournful. Judith Dupré, an architectural historian and a book on skyscrapers, said, “People instinctively perceive that the skyline has been torn apart.” Until the new World Trade Center No. 1 in 2014 After the completion, the crack was filled. The symbolic height of the building reached 1,776 feet, setting a new record. (If you don't count the spires, the building itself is 1368 feet high.)
The World Trade Center No. 1 is still the tallest building in the city, but a large number of skyscrapers are closely following, most of which are residential buildings. This marks a significant change, with the skyline dominated by office buildings and executive suites concentrating on providing the best view for wealthy residents.
According to the World Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Society, when the Singer Building in Lower Manhattan became the first building in the city to exceed 500 feet in height in 1908, only 26% of buildings of similar height were Designed for housing needs. From 2010 to the present, 64% of the high-rise buildings, including the projects under construction, are residential buildings, most of which are luxury apartments.
“The trend in housing prices is definitely related to the height of the building,” said Jonathan J. Miller, president of property valuation firm Miller Samuel. He pointed out that in the past decade, having an unobstructed view has become a necessary condition for the most expensive apartment buildings.
“房价趋势肯定与建筑高度息息相关，”房产评估公司Miller Samuel的总裁乔纳森·J·米勒(Jonathan J. Miller)说。他指出，在过去十年里，拥有一览无遗的景观已经成为那些最昂贵的公寓楼的必要条件。
This is a recent phenomenon. In 2003, at a height of 750 feet, overlooking 25 Columbus Circle in Central Park, an apartment sold a record $43 million. The deal has helped fuel the luxury apartment boom in Midtown. According to the real estate information website StreetEasy, the average selling price of the apartment reached $2,630 per square foot, and at that time, the price of $1,000 per square foot was considered optimistic.
这是个最近才有的现象。2003年，在高达750英尺，可以俯视中央公园(Central Park)哥伦布圆环25号(25 Columbus Circle)，一套公寓卖出了创纪录的4300万美元。这笔交易对中城的豪华公寓热潮起到了推波助澜的作用。根据房地产信息网站StreetEasy，这套公寓的平均售价达到了每平方英尺2630美元，而在当时，每平方英尺1000美元的售价就已经被认为很乐观了。
By 2007, some developers had been able to sell homes for $3,000 per square foot, which are often derived from great landscapes. In 2012, Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev bought a $88 million flat at the top floor of 15 West Avenue, Central Park, at a record price of $1,049,000 per square foot. Apartment. No. 15 West Avenue, Central Park is a high-rise building made of limestone. The 360-degree panoramic view of the city has pushed up its price and has also created a higher-than-competitive building.
“In most of these buildings, less than 20 floors will not be used as dwellings because their landscapes have been obscured,” said Daniel Safari, editor of the World High-rise Building and Urban Habitat Society. Safarik) said.
At the same time as the construction momentum of high-rise residential buildings took off, some commercial buildings were in a difficult situation. In March, the prestigious Chrysler Building was sold for only $151 million, and in 2008 an Abu Dhabi sovereign wealth fund bought $90 million when it bought 90% of its shares. Part of the reason for the sharp fall in prices came from expensive land leases, but it also reflected changes in investor interest.
Alchemy Properties spent $68 million in 2012 to buy the top 30 floors of the 792-foot Woolworth Building, which was once the world's tallest building and was called "commercial." cathedral". The company transformed its office space into 30 luxury apartments, the cheapest one-bedroom for $36 million. The 9710-square-foot "Tower of the Attic", located inside the copper roof, was finally priced at $110 million.
炼金地产公司(Alchemy Properties)在2012年斥资6800万美元买下了高792英尺的伍尔沃斯大厦(Woolworth Building)顶部的30层，这座大楼一度是世界第一高楼，被称作“商业大教堂”。这家公司将办公空间改造成了30套奢华公寓，最便宜的一居室3600万美元起售。位于铜制屋顶内部、面积9710平方英尺的“塔尖阁楼”最终标价1.1亿美元。
“Developers always have a lot of self-awareness,” says Kenneth S. Horn, president of Alchemy Properties, who is referring to the high level of concern of some of his peers. Although it is not the tallest building in the city, not even the tallest building in the vicinity, the Woolworth Building still has a panoramic view of the city, which Horn said is a key element of the related residential renovation plan.
“开发商总是会掺杂许多自我意识，”炼金术地产公司(Alchemy Properties)的总裁肯尼斯·S·霍恩(Kenneth S. Horn)说，他指的是一些同行对高度的关注。尽管已经不是这个城市的第一高楼，甚至都不是这附近最高的建筑了，伍尔沃斯大厦仍然可以一览城市全景，霍恩说这正是相关住宅改造计划的一个关键要素。
Regardless of the motivation, it is the advancement of technology that has made the recent high-rises possible.
“Because we can do it,” said Stephen V. DeSimone, CEO of DeSimone Consulting Engineers. He has been involved in the construction of several new super high-rise buildings.
“因为我们能做得到，”德西蒙咨询工程公司(DeSimone Consulting Engineers)首席执行官斯蒂芬·V·德西蒙(Stephen V. DeSimone)说。他已经参与建设了好几座新的超高层建筑。
Stronger cement, faster and more efficient elevators, and more sophisticated computer modeling systems allow developers to build taller buildings on smaller sites, with a larger footprint in the past Much more, he said. A deeper understanding of aerodynamics allows the slender building spires to swing four to six feet in all directions.
He also said that before 2005, few buildings would install a mechanical device called a damper, a shock absorber that was usually installed on the top of a tall building to reduce the discomfort caused by the shaking of the building. Now he estimates that there are about a dozen buildings in New York with dampers.
Engineering solutions also mean more efficient use of planning vulnerabilities. In New York, developers are often limited to a land use algorithm that determines the height and volume of buildings that are allowed to be built. Frank E. Chaney, a lawyer at the Rosenberg & Estis real estate law firm, says that the ability to build more “slender” buildings means occupying smaller areas of land. In some neighborhoods, this means that developers can “based on legal rights” without having to submit petitions to the city, bypassing the tedious and lengthy review process and directly building very high projects.
工程解决方案也意味着能够更有效地利用规划漏洞。在纽约，开发商通常受限于一种土地使用算法，后者决定了建筑物被允许建造的高度和体量。罗森博格-艾斯蒂斯(Rosenberg & Estis)房地产法律事务所的律师弗兰克·E·钱尼(Frank E. Chaney)说，有能力建造更“苗条”的建筑意味着会占据更小面积的土地，这在一些街区就意味着开发商能够“依据合法权利”，不必向城市提交请愿书，绕开那些繁琐冗长的审核流程，直接建设非常高的项目。
A common means of achieving higher building heights is to purchase the unused development potential of adjacent facilities, the so-called "air rights", through which operations accumulate a taller building.
“Going back 10 to 15 years ago is not as common as it is now,” Cheney said when talking about these mergers. "Now everyone is doing this."
Critics point out that some newly built buildings use the way of building ultra-high mechanical houses to drill the planned holes, because these spaces are not counted in the area allocated to developers. This approach is also effective in pushing apartment buildings to the sky, creating a higher premium.
On the horizon
Despite the endless stream of new buildings, there are also creative designs, and some people complain that skyscrapers are not as surprising and fascinating as they used to be.
“For many city dwellers, the excitement brought about by the new skyscrapers has been diluted by the economic situation, and living in a beloved city has made them unable to afford it,” Dupre said.
There are also people who are dissatisfied with the sluggish and uniform appearance of many new buildings.
“If you ask someone, 'How many residential buildings are more than 800 feet?' They would say one, two, or too many.” Chief of the Empire State Realty Trust Executive officer Anthony E. Malkin said. (The answer is 10 buildings - six of which will be completed within this year.)
“如果你问某人，‘有多少幢超过800英尺的住宅楼？’他们会说一幢，两幢，或是太多了。“帝国大厦所有者帝国房地产信托(Empire State Realty Trust)的首席执行官安瑟尼·E·马尔金(Anthony E. Malkin)说。（答案是10幢——其中六幢将在今年内建造完毕。）
Miller pointed out that there are signs that the prosperity of super-tall buildings may be slowing down, at least in the short term. Most of these recently built buildings are driven by the market demand for luxury apartments, which peaked around 2016 and the market has already accumulated a large number of unsold new apartments.
He said that at the current sales rate, it would take nine years to sell all 9000 unsold suites.
Perhaps this time is enough for developers to plan the construction of the next batch of skyscrapers.