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摩天大楼新浪潮重塑纽约天际线

  New York - New York City has always been a towering city. But with 16 buildings over 500 feet tall scheduled to be completed this year, 2019 could be the most active year for the city's new skyscrapers.

  纽约——一直以来纽约市就是一座高耸入云的都市。但随着16座超过500英尺高的建筑计划在今年完工,2019年可能成为这座城市的新摩天大楼最为活跃的一年。

  The city's skyline was dominated by the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building for more than 1,000 feet in the early 1930s. But for most of the past decade, the skyline of New York has been constantly changing.

  这座城市的天际线被帝国大厦(Empire State Building)和克莱斯勒大厦(Chrysler Building)主宰了许多年,这两座建于1930年代初的建筑高度都超过了1000英尺。但是近十年的大部分时间里,纽约的地平线一直都在不断变化。

  Of the tall buildings already built in New York City, nine are more than 1,000 feet high, seven of which were built after 2007. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, a non-profit organization based in Chicago that tracks and evaluates high-rise buildings, there are 16 such high-rises – nearly twice the current number – - Being planned or under construction.

  纽约市内已经建成的高楼中,有九座超过1000英尺高,其中七座建于2007年以后。据总部位于芝加哥、追踪和评估高层建筑的非营利性机构世界高层建筑与都市人居学会(Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat),还有16座这样的高楼——将近两倍于现在的数量——正在计划或建设中。

  This round of new construction waves is unprecedented.

  这一轮新的建造浪潮规模前所未有。

  The New York skyline looks a lot different than it was a decade ago. Redrawing it is the large Hudson Yards project in Manhattan's West End, the high-rises on the Midtown's Billionaires' Row and surrounding clusters, and One World by the World Trade Center (One World) Trade Center) leads the revival of Lower Manhattan. The recent re-planning in the Midtown East will cut more strange silhouettes of the city skyline. Luxury apartment high-rise buildings will soon set new heights in Brooklyn and Queens.

  纽约的天际线看起来与十年前相比已经大为不同。重绘它的是曼哈顿西区的哈德逊园区(Hudson Yards)大型项目、中城“亿万富豪街”(Billionaires’ Row)上和周围群簇的高楼以及由世界贸易中心一号大楼(One World Trade Center)引领的曼哈顿下城的复兴。最近中城东区在进行的重新规划将为城市天际线剪出更多陌生的剪影。豪华公寓高层建筑也将很快在布鲁克林和皇后区刷新出新的高度。

  Why is it now? From technological advances to speculative booms in luxury apartments, a combination of factors has encouraged developers to take higher floors and take advantage of old urban planning provisions that cannot keep up with construction technology breakthroughs. Some people think that these planned loopholes are also resources that can be developed. Just like the buildings that captured the imagination of New York before a generation, new office buildings are rising, but they can only be divided equally with those millions of apartment buildings.

  为什么是现在呢?从技术进步到对豪华公寓的投机热潮,一系列因素综合起来,都在鼓励开发商们把楼盖得更高,并利用那些陈旧的无法跟上施工技术突破的城市规划条款。一些人认为这些规划上的漏洞也是可开发的资源。就像在一代人之前曾捕获了纽约想象力的那些大厦一样,新的办公大楼也在不断崛起,但他们如今只能与那些价值百万的公寓楼平分秋色了。

  Crack in the skyline

  天际线的裂缝

  The new skyline is amazing, in part because of the speed of new entrants. In 1931, in a highly contested, three-pronged race, the Empire State Building stood out at 1,250 feet with the rigorously protected spire, surpassing the recently completed Chrysler Building (1047 feet). And a tall building (927 feet) on the 40th Wall Street, now known as the Trump Building.

  新的天际线令人讶异,部分原因在于新加入者的速度。1931年,在一场备受关注、呈现三足鼎立之势的高度竞赛中,帝国大厦凭借那个被严密保护起来的尖顶,以1250英尺的高度脱颖而出,超越了当时刚落成不久的克莱斯勒大厦(1047英尺)和一座位于华尔街40号、如今被称作特朗普大厦(Trump Building)的高楼(927英尺)。

  This record has never been broken, and the skyline remains almost the same until 1972 when the World Trade Center was completed, reaching a new height of 1,368 feet.

  这个纪录一直无人打破,天际线几乎保持着原样,直到1972年世贸大厦(World Trade Center)落成,达到了1368英尺的新高度。

  When the World Trade Twin Towers collapsed in 2001, the entire city was mournful. Judith Dupré, an architectural historian and a book on skyscrapers, said, “People instinctively perceive that the skyline has been torn apart.” Until the new World Trade Center No. 1 in 2014 After the completion, the crack was filled. The symbolic height of the building reached 1,776 feet, setting a new record. (If you don't count the spires, the building itself is 1368 feet high.)

  当世贸双塔在2001年轰然倒塌的时候,整座城市都为之悲恸。建筑史学家、著有摩天大厦相关书籍的朱迪斯·杜普雷(Judith Dupré)说,“人们本能地感知到天际线被撕开了一条裂缝。”直到新的世贸一号楼在2014年落成,那个裂缝才被填上。这座大楼的象征性高度达到1776英尺,创造了新的纪录。(如果不把尖顶计算在内,建筑本身高度为1368英尺。)

  The World Trade Center No. 1 is still the tallest building in the city, but a large number of skyscrapers are closely following, most of which are residential buildings. This marks a significant change, with the skyline dominated by office buildings and executive suites concentrating on providing the best view for wealthy residents.

  世贸一号楼仍然是这座城市最高的建筑,但近来一大批摩天大楼正紧随其后,其中大部分是住宅楼。这标志着一个显著的变化,昔日由办公楼和行政套房主宰的天际线已日渐变得专注于为富有的居民提供最佳景观。

  According to the World Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Society, when the Singer Building in Lower Manhattan became the first building in the city to exceed 500 feet in height in 1908, only 26% of buildings of similar height were Designed for housing needs. From 2010 to the present, 64% of the high-rise buildings, including the projects under construction, are residential buildings, most of which are luxury apartments.

  根据世界高层建筑与都市人居学会,当位于曼哈顿下城的辛格大厦(Singer Building)在1908年成为这个城市里第一座高度超过500英尺的建筑时,类似高度的建筑中只有26%是为住房需求设计的。而从2010年至今,包括正在建设中的工程在内,64%的高层建筑是住宅楼,其中大多数是豪华公寓。

  “The trend in housing prices is definitely related to the height of the building,” said Jonathan J. Miller, president of property valuation firm Miller Samuel. He pointed out that in the past decade, having an unobstructed view has become a necessary condition for the most expensive apartment buildings.

  “房价趋势肯定与建筑高度息息相关,”房产评估公司Miller Samuel的总裁乔纳森·J·米勒(Jonathan J. Miller)说。他指出,在过去十年里,拥有一览无遗的景观已经成为那些最昂贵的公寓楼的必要条件。

  Top change

  顶端的变化

  This is a recent phenomenon. In 2003, at a height of 750 feet, overlooking 25 Columbus Circle in Central Park, an apartment sold a record $43 million. The deal has helped fuel the luxury apartment boom in Midtown. According to the real estate information website StreetEasy, the average selling price of the apartment reached $2,630 per square foot, and at that time, the price of $1,000 per square foot was considered optimistic.

  这是个最近才有的现象。2003年,在高达750英尺,可以俯视中央公园(Central Park)哥伦布圆环25号(25 Columbus Circle),一套公寓卖出了创纪录的4300万美元。这笔交易对中城的豪华公寓热潮起到了推波助澜的作用。根据房地产信息网站StreetEasy,这套公寓的平均售价达到了每平方英尺2630美元,而在当时,每平方英尺1000美元的售价就已经被认为很乐观了。

  By 2007, some developers had been able to sell homes for $3,000 per square foot, which are often derived from great landscapes. In 2012, Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev bought a $88 million flat at the top floor of 15 West Avenue, Central Park, at a record price of $1,049,000 per square foot. Apartment. No. 15 West Avenue, Central Park is a high-rise building made of limestone. The 360-degree panoramic view of the city has pushed up its price and has also created a higher-than-competitive building.

  到了2007年,一些开发商已经可以卖出每平方英尺3000美元的住宅,这些高价通常都源于绝佳的景观。2012年,俄罗斯亿万富翁迪米特里·雷波诺列夫(Dmitry Rybolovlev)以创纪录的每平方英尺13049美元单价买下了一套价值8800万美元、位于中央公园西大道15号的顶层公寓。中央公园西大道15号是一座由石灰岩建成的高层建筑,享有360度城市全景推高了它的价格,也促使那些处于竞争中的大楼建得更高。

  “In most of these buildings, less than 20 floors will not be used as dwellings because their landscapes have been obscured,” said Daniel Safari, editor of the World High-rise Building and Urban Habitat Society. Safarik) said.

  “大多数这种建筑里,低于20层的都不会被用作住宅,因为它们的景观已经被遮挡住了,”世界高层建筑与都市人居学会的编辑丹尼尔·萨法里克(Daniel Safarik)说。

  At the same time as the construction momentum of high-rise residential buildings took off, some commercial buildings were in a difficult situation. In March, the prestigious Chrysler Building was sold for only $151 million, and in 2008 an Abu Dhabi sovereign wealth fund bought $90 million when it bought 90% of its shares. Part of the reason for the sharp fall in prices came from expensive land leases, but it also reflected changes in investor interest.

  在高层住宅的建设势头起飞同时,一些商业建筑却处境困难。三月,名声在外的克莱斯勒大厦仅以1.51亿美元售出,而2008年一家阿布扎比的主权财富基金买下它90%的股份时,付出了八亿美元。价格大跌的部分原因来自昂贵的土地租约,但也反映了投资者兴趣的变化。

  Alchemy Properties spent $68 million in 2012 to buy the top 30 floors of the 792-foot Woolworth Building, which was once the world's tallest building and was called "commercial." cathedral". The company transformed its office space into 30 luxury apartments, the cheapest one-bedroom for $36 million. The 9710-square-foot "Tower of the Attic", located inside the copper roof, was finally priced at $110 million.

  炼金地产公司(Alchemy Properties)在2012年斥资6800万美元买下了高792英尺的伍尔沃斯大厦(Woolworth Building)顶部的30层,这座大楼一度是世界第一高楼,被称作“商业大教堂”。这家公司将办公空间改造成了30套奢华公寓,最便宜的一居室3600万美元起售。位于铜制屋顶内部、面积9710平方英尺的“塔尖阁楼”最终标价1.1亿美元。

纽约时报中英文网 www.qqenglish.com

  “Developers always have a lot of self-awareness,” says Kenneth S. Horn, president of Alchemy Properties, who is referring to the high level of concern of some of his peers. Although it is not the tallest building in the city, not even the tallest building in the vicinity, the Woolworth Building still has a panoramic view of the city, which Horn said is a key element of the related residential renovation plan.

  “开发商总是会掺杂许多自我意识,”炼金术地产公司(Alchemy Properties)的总裁肯尼斯·S·霍恩(Kenneth S. Horn)说,他指的是一些同行对高度的关注。尽管已经不是这个城市的第一高楼,甚至都不是这附近最高的建筑了,伍尔沃斯大厦仍然可以一览城市全景,霍恩说这正是相关住宅改造计划的一个关键要素。

  Engineering feat

  工程壮举

  Regardless of the motivation, it is the advancement of technology that has made the recent high-rises possible.

  抛开动机不谈,正是技术的进步使得最近的那些高楼成为可能。

  “Because we can do it,” said Stephen V. DeSimone, CEO of DeSimone Consulting Engineers. He has been involved in the construction of several new super high-rise buildings.

  “因为我们能做得到,”德西蒙咨询工程公司(DeSimone Consulting Engineers)首席执行官斯蒂芬·V·德西蒙(Stephen V. DeSimone)说。他已经参与建设了好几座新的超高层建筑。

  Stronger cement, faster and more efficient elevators, and more sophisticated computer modeling systems allow developers to build taller buildings on smaller sites, with a larger footprint in the past Much more, he said. A deeper understanding of aerodynamics allows the slender building spires to swing four to six feet in all directions.

  更结实的水泥、更快更高效的电梯以及更成熟的电脑建模系统,这一切使得开发商能够在占地面积更小的工地上建起更高的建筑,过去的工地占地面积要大得多,他说。对空气动力学的更深理解使得那些纤细的大厦尖顶能向四周各个方向摆动四到六英尺。

  He also said that before 2005, few buildings would install a mechanical device called a damper, a shock absorber that was usually installed on the top of a tall building to reduce the discomfort caused by the shaking of the building. Now he estimates that there are about a dozen buildings in New York with dampers.

  他还说,2005年以前,很少有建筑会安装一种名为阻尼器的机械装置,这是一种通常被安装在高楼顶部的减震器,能够减轻楼体晃动带来的不适感。现在他估计纽约大约有十多幢建筑都装了阻尼器。

  Engineering solutions also mean more efficient use of planning vulnerabilities. In New York, developers are often limited to a land use algorithm that determines the height and volume of buildings that are allowed to be built. Frank E. Chaney, a lawyer at the Rosenberg & Estis real estate law firm, says that the ability to build more “slender” buildings means occupying smaller areas of land. In some neighborhoods, this means that developers can “based on legal rights” without having to submit petitions to the city, bypassing the tedious and lengthy review process and directly building very high projects.

  工程解决方案也意味着能够更有效地利用规划漏洞。在纽约,开发商通常受限于一种土地使用算法,后者决定了建筑物被允许建造的高度和体量。罗森博格-艾斯蒂斯(Rosenberg & Estis)房地产法律事务所的律师弗兰克·E·钱尼(Frank E. Chaney)说,有能力建造更“苗条”的建筑意味着会占据更小面积的土地,这在一些街区就意味着开发商能够“依据合法权利”,不必向城市提交请愿书,绕开那些繁琐冗长的审核流程,直接建设非常高的项目。

  A common means of achieving higher building heights is to purchase the unused development potential of adjacent facilities, the so-called "air rights", through which operations accumulate a taller building.

  一种获得更高建筑高度的常见手段是购买毗邻设施的未使用开发潜力,也就是所谓的“上空权”(air rights),通过这样的操作来积累出一幢更高大的建筑。

  “Going back 10 to 15 years ago is not as common as it is now,” Cheney said when talking about these mergers. "Now everyone is doing this."

  “往前回退10到15年,这种做法还不像现在这样常见,”钱尼在谈起这些兼并案例时说。“现在大家都在这么做了。”

  Critics point out that some newly built buildings use the way of building ultra-high mechanical houses to drill the planned holes, because these spaces are not counted in the area allocated to developers. This approach is also effective in pushing apartment buildings to the sky, creating a higher premium.

  批评者们指出,一些新盖的大楼用修建超高的机械用房的方式来钻规划的空子,因为这些空间是不会被计算在拨给开发商的使用面积内的。这一手段也同样有效地将公寓楼推向天际,造成了更高的溢价。

  On the horizon

  在地平线上

  Despite the endless stream of new buildings, there are also creative designs, and some people complain that skyscrapers are not as surprising and fascinating as they used to be.

  尽管新建筑层出不穷,其中也不乏富有创意的设计,一些人还是抱怨说摩天大楼不像以往那样让人惊讶和神往了。

  “For many city dwellers, the excitement brought about by the new skyscrapers has been diluted by the economic situation, and living in a beloved city has made them unable to afford it,” Dupre said.

  “对很多城市居民来说,那种由新的摩天建筑带来的惊叹被经济现状所冲淡了,在心爱的城市里居住已令他们负担不起。“杜普雷说。

  There are also people who are dissatisfied with the sluggish and uniform appearance of many new buildings.

  也有人对许多新大楼呆滞而千篇一律的样貌感到不满。

  “If you ask someone, 'How many residential buildings are more than 800 feet?' They would say one, two, or too many.” Chief of the Empire State Realty Trust Executive officer Anthony E. Malkin said. (The answer is 10 buildings - six of which will be completed within this year.)

  “如果你问某人,‘有多少幢超过800英尺的住宅楼?’他们会说一幢,两幢,或是太多了。“帝国大厦所有者帝国房地产信托(Empire State Realty Trust)的首席执行官安瑟尼·E·马尔金(Anthony E. Malkin)说。(答案是10幢——其中六幢将在今年内建造完毕。)

  Miller pointed out that there are signs that the prosperity of super-tall buildings may be slowing down, at least in the short term. Most of these recently built buildings are driven by the market demand for luxury apartments, which peaked around 2016 and the market has already accumulated a large number of unsold new apartments.

  米勒指出,有迹象表明,超级高楼的繁荣可能正在放缓,至少在短期内是这样。这些近期修建的大楼大多由豪华公寓的市场需求推动,这一需求在2016年前后达到了顶峰,目前市场已经积压了大量未售出的新公寓。

  He said that at the current sales rate, it would take nine years to sell all 9000 unsold suites.

  他表示,以目前的销售速度计算,要卖掉全部9000套未售出的套房还要花上九年的时间。

  Perhaps this time is enough for developers to plan the construction of the next batch of skyscrapers.

  也许这个时间足够让开发商们来规划下一批摩天大楼的建设了。

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