London -- the British monarchy has survived public crises -- religious divisions, revolutions, the murder of Kings -- but this week the royal family scrambled to confront a relatively new adversary: an awkward television interview.
In a 50-minute interview with The BBC, The Duke of York, The second son of queen Elizabeth ii, better known as Prince Andrew, vigorously defended his friendship with Jeffrey Epstein, The disgraced financier accused of The sex trade.
约克公爵(The Duke of York)是伊丽莎白女王二世的次子，他更广为人知的名字是安德鲁王子(Prince Andrew)，在接受英国广播公司(BBC)50分钟的采访时，他竭力为自己辩护，讲述他与声名扫地、被控性交易的金融家杰弗里·爱泼斯坦(Jeffrey Epstein)之间的友谊。
The interview was widely criticised in the British media after it was broadcast over the weekend as a disaster. The interview quickly turned a simmering controversy into a full-blown royal scandal, one of the worst in modern royal history.
Facing a strong public reaction, prince Andrew announced on Wednesday that he would take an indefinite break from public life with the queen's permission. But in the past century, a series of scandals have embarrassed the British royal family.
Prince Andrew's friendship with Jeffrey Epstein
The prince and Epstein met in 1999 and their relationship has been closely watched for years. In a BBC interview, the prince said he had attended Epstein's dinners for "cosmopolitans" from politics, academia and business, and the two had exchanged visits several times.
But prince Andrew said he had "seen no indication" of wrongdoing.
In 2008, Epstein pleaded guilty to soliciting prostitution and served 13 months in a Florida county jail under a widely criticized plea deal. After his release in 2010, prince Andrew visited Epstein's Manhattan mansion and was widely criticized for continuing his relationship with him.
This summer, after the financier's arrest on federal charges and the details of the charges against him began to emerge, attention again turned to prince Andrew's friendship with him. Epstein committed suicide in a New York prison in August.
One of his accusers, Virginia Roberts Giuffre, said Epstein sold her to prince Andrew, who had sex with her three times, an allegation he denies. As the pressure mounted, the prince agreed to speak to the BBC.
指控他的人之一，弗吉尼亚·罗伯茨·朱弗雷(Virginia Roberts Giuffre)说，爱泼斯坦把她卖给了安德鲁王子，后者与她发生了三次性关系，但他否认了这一指控。随着压力的增加，王子同意接受BBC的采访。
But the public reaction to the episode was immediate and furious, especially as the prince appeared unsympathetic to Epstein's victims. Businesses and organizations associated with the prince quickly distanced themselves.
Charles and Diana's marriage failed
Prince Andrew is not the first member of his generation to come under attack after television interviews. After his brother, Prince Charles, divorced his first wife, Diana, he agreed to appear in a 1994 documentary to redeem himself. But when the prince confessed to adultery, he immediately lost the goodwill he had been desperately trying to win back.
Their father, Prince Philip, said at the time that he did not understand why his son had publicly expressed his annoyance, but that the interview had been approved in advance by queen Elizabeth ii.
We had three people in our marriage, Diana said in an interview a year later, referring to prince Charles and Camilla parker-bowles, who would become his second wife. Charles and Diana divorced in 1996 after years of separation.
The following year, Diana died in a car crash in Paris while being followed by paparazzi, and the royal family came under fire for seeming "indifferent to the grief of the nation."
The love life of princess Margaret
Twenty years before prince Charles's divorce, his aunt, Princess Margaret, shocked the royal family by divorcing Earl of Snowdon.
在查尔斯王子离婚20年前，他的姨妈玛格丽特公主(Princess Margaret)与斯诺登伯爵(Earl of Snowdon)离婚的消息震惊了王室。
For decades, Margaret has found herself under the spotlight, both from within the royal family and from the public, focused on her love life, sometimes with sympathy, sometimes with caution.
Her fun-loving nature and glamorous lifestyle -- parties, lavish outfits and celebrity friends -- became a staple of the British media.
But in the 1950s, her relationship with a divorced courtier, Group capt. Peter Townsend, was a tipping point. Her sister queen Elizabeth is the head of the church of England, which bans divorce. The uproar over King Edward VIII abdicating the throne to marry a twicedivorced American was still fresh, and princess Margaret was under enormous pressure to end the affair.
但上世纪50年代，她与离过婚的王室侍从彼得·汤森上尉(Group Capt. Peter Townsend)的恋情是个临界点。她的姐姐伊丽莎白女王是禁止离婚的英国国教的领袖。人们当时对于爱德华八世(King Edward VIII)为与一位离过两次婚的美国人结婚而放弃王位引发的喧嚣还记忆犹新，玛格丽特公主承受着巨大的压力，必须结束这段恋情。
The princess did not choose to leave royal life to marry him.
Nearly a decade later, she fell in love with the photographer Antony armstrong-jones, and when they married, he became earl of snowdon. But their turbulent relationship ended in divorce in 1976.
Princess Margaret's love life became a staple of Netflix's historical drama series, "the Crown." This is a show that explores the inner world of the royal family.
Prince Philip, with his frequent gaffes
Prince Philip, 98, the duke of Edinburgh and husband of queen Elizabeth ii, has also found himself in trouble for speaking out to the media. Unlike his discreet wife, who maintains a public image, he can be outspoken and prone to gaffes.
Some of his comments were offensive or overtly racist.
If you stay here too long, you will all narrow your eyes, he told British students in China during a visit in 1986. "It looks like an Indian put it on," he said in 1999, pointing to an old-fashioned fuse box in a factory near Edinburgh. "Everyone was saying we had to have more leisure time. Now they're complaining about unemployment, "he said during the great recession of 1981.
He gave up his licence earlier this year after a crash on a country road in north London raised questions about his driving ability. Two days after the accident, he was photographed driving without a seat belt and reprimanded by a police officer.
The brief reign of Edward viii
In the 1920s, queen Elizabeth's uncle, prince Edward, became so famous for his indulgence that he included in a song: "I danced with a man who danced with a girl who danced with the prince of wales."
But it was the relationship with a particular woman that ultimately shook the royal family.
In 1930, he met Wallis Simpson, a married woman from Baltimore who was also in the upper class. After the death of his father, king George v, Edward pursued her over the objections of his mother, queen Mary, and the then prime minister, Stanley Baldwin.
1930年，他遇到了来自巴尔的摩的已婚女人沃利斯·辛普森(Wallis Simpson)，她也出入同一个上流社会圈子。在父亲乔治五世国王去世后，爱德华不顾母亲玛丽王后和时任首相斯坦利·鲍德温(Stanley Baldwin)的反对，继续追求她。
A stalemate ensued when the prince succeeded to the throne in 1936. Mrs Simpson asked for a divorce and the British government advised the new king not to marry her.
The government tried to hide it from the British press, but the American newspapers made it public.
A few months later, king Edward abdicated, saying it was "impossible to take on such a heavy responsibility without the help and support of the woman I loved."
For years, the couple had been accused of Nazi sympathies. She denied supporting Hitler, but in 1935 Edward urged the British legion to visit Germany, and in 1937 the couple met Hitler in berchtsgaden in the Bavarian Alps, embarrassing Edward's brother, king George vi.
A video clip taken in the early 1930s shows Edward with his mother and future queen Elizabeth ii, then six or seven years old, holding up a Nazi salute in an apparently playful setting.