London -- "is it time to stop appreciating gauguin altogether?"
This is a startling question that visitors to the national gallery's "Gauguin Portraits" exhibition hear in their voice guides. The exhibition, which runs until January 26, features Paul Gauguin's portraits of himself, his friends and other artists, his children and the girls he lived with in Tahiti.
伦敦国家美术馆举办的“高更肖像”(Gauguin Portraits)展览上，参观者在语音导览里听到了这样一个令人惊诧的问题。该展览将持续到1月26日，主要展出保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)的肖像画，描绘的对象包括他本人、他的朋友和其他艺术家、他的孩子们，以及在大溪地和他一起生活的女孩。
Particularly striking in the exhibition is "Tehamana Has Many Parents," written in 1893. The painting depicts gauguin's teenage lover holding a fan.
展览中格外引人注目的是作于1893年的《塔哈马纳的祖辈》(Tehamana Has Many Parents)。画中描绘了高更的少女情人手持扇子的形象。
The artist "repeatedly had sex with young girls, 'married' two of them and had children," the commentary on the wall said. "Gauguin certainly took advantage of his western privileges to fully enjoy his sexual freedom."
Born in Paris, the son of a radical journalist, gauguin spent his early years in Peru before returning to France. He began drawing in his 20s as a stockbroker, but soon gave up the profession, his wife and children, to work full time as an artist. He set off for Tahiti in 1891 in search of the exoticism of his childhood in Peru. Gauguin spent most of the rest of his 12 years in Tahiti and the French Polynesia island of shivawa, cohabiting with adolescent girls, having more children and producing his most famous works.
Gorgon is an international museum box office hit. In the past few years alone, his work has been exhibited six times, including major exhibitions in Paris, Chicago and San Francisco. But at a time of growing public sensitivity to gender, race and colonialism, the museum has had to reassess its artistic heritage.
Christopher Riopelle, the co-curator of the national gallery show, said that decades ago, exhibitions on the same subject "would have been more about formal innovation." Now, he said, everything must be seen "in a more nuanced context."
I don't think it's enough to just say, 'oh, that's how people were back then,' he said.
Describing gauguin as "a very complex person, a very driven person, a very cold person," he said he was overwhelmed by the impulse to create art, "leading him to seriously hurt or exploit a lot of people," which left him "disappointed."
The exhibition opened in Ottawa in late may in conjunction with the national gallery of Canada in Ottawa. A few days before the opening, Sasha Suda, the museum's newly appointed director, and the exhibition's curator visited the exhibit and decided to modify some of the captions on the walls. The museum's media department said nine labels were changed to avoid a lack of culturally sensitive text.
In Ottawa, "Head of a Savage (Mask)" has an elaborate label explaining that words like "Savage" and "barbarian" are "considered aggressive today, but reflect the prevailing attitudes of gauguin's time and place." There were also places where his "relationship with a young Tahiti woman" was changed to "his relationship with a 13 or 14 year old Tahiti girl".
在渥太华，《野蛮人头像（面具）》(Head of a Savage, Mask)附有一个详尽的标签，解释“savage”（野人）和“barbarian”（蛮人）这样的词语“在今天被认为具有侵犯性，但反映了高更所处时代与地域普遍存在的态度”。还有一些地方把他“与一名大溪地年轻女性的关系”改为“他与一名13或14岁的大溪地女孩的关系”。
About 50 of the 2,313 feedback CARDS submitted by visitors to the Canadian exhibition were complaints about gauguin and the museum project, Mr. Souda said.
The exhibition "should have addressed these issues in a more open and transparent way that is relevant to contemporary audiences," Ms. Soda said in an interview. Confronting historical artists with their "blind spots" in their work "can make these artists more relevant," she added.
For other museum professionals, revisiting the lives of past artists from a 21st-century perspective is risky because it can lead to a boycott of great art.
Vicente Todoli, director of the Pirelli HangarBicocca art foundation in milan, said: "I can totally hate and hate this person, but a work is a work." Mr. Todori was the director of Tate modern, which hosted a major exhibition of gauguin's work in 2010.
位于米兰的倍耐力比可卡机库(Pirelli HangarBicocca)艺术基金会总监维森特·托多利(Vicente Todolí)说：“对于这个人，我可以完全憎恶和讨厌，但作品就是作品。”托多利曾任泰特现代艺术馆馆长，任内该馆于2010年举办了高更的大型作品展。
Once an artist creates something, it no longer belongs to the artist: it belongs to the world, he said. Otherwise, he warns, we should stop reading the anti-semite writer louis-ferdinand Celine or avoid Cervantes and Shakespeare because we find them disgraceful.
But Ashley Remer, an American curator based in New Zealand, insisted that in gauguin's case, the man had acted so badly that he had overshadowed the work. In 2009, she founded girlmuseum.org, an online museum dedicated to the representation of young girls in history and culture.
然而，常驻新西兰的美国策展人阿什莉·雷默(Ashley Remer)坚持认为，在高更这件事上，这个男人的行为是如此恶劣，以至于盖过了作品本身。她在2009年创立了girlmuseum.org，一家专注于年轻女孩在历史和文化中的呈现的在线博物馆。<纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/>
To put it bluntly, he was an arrogant, overblown, condescending pedophile, she said. Had his paintings been photographs, the outrage would have been "much worse" and "we would not have accepted the images in the first place," she added.
Reimer also questioned the proliferation of exhibitions by the gauguin and Austrian artist Egon Schiele, which depicted nude underage models, and the way they were made. "I'm not talking about taking these works down: I'm talking about making the whole artist public," she said.
Gauguin remains a selling point for Polynesian and south Pacific tourism. There is even a luxury cruise line to tour the area named after him. But for many locals, they are tired of the artist's cliched depictions of lush, exotic islands full of shadowy, nameless girls.
Gauguin, you piss me off, begins the poem "Two Nudes On a Tahitian Beach, 1894," by the New Zealand poet and scholar Selina Tusitala Marsh.
“高更，你把我惹火了，”这是新西兰诗人和学者赛琳娜·杜西塔拉·马什(Selina Tusitala Marsh)的诗作《1894年，大溪地海滩上的两个裸体》(Two Nudes On a Tahitian Beach, 1894)的开头。
The anonymity of his Tahiti portrait is another source of frustration. In her 2009 photography series, "Dee and Dallas Do Gauguin," Tyla Vaeau, a new zealand-born Samoan artist, cut out the face in a reproduction of Gauguin's work and replaced it with photos of her sisters and friends.
他的大溪地肖像的匿名性是另一个引发不满的地方。在2009年的摄影系列“迪和达拉斯仿高更”(Dee and Dallas Do Gauguin)中，新西兰出生的萨摩亚族艺术家泰拉·瓦伊奥(Tyla Vaeau)剪下了高更作品复制品上的面孔，换成了她姐妹和朋友的照片。
If gauguin's art "continues to be used to place the Pacific in an eternal, semi-ruined past, despite all that's going on," it becomes a problem, said Caroline Vercoe, a senior lecturer in art history at the university of Auckland. Verco, who is of Samoan descent, is participating in talks and film projects at the national gallery in London. "In the aboriginal context, it's such a vibrant culture."
Even gauguin's admirers are skeptical. The African-American painter Kehinde Wiley, in a 2017 interview, called gauguin one of his idols, but also described him as "creepy" -- most recently, he created a series of gauguin-inspired paintings in tahedi depicting mahu in Polynesian, a non-binary group considered the "third gender."
I like his paintings, but I think he's a little strange, Mr. Wiley said in the national gallery film. "We see the black and brown bodies of the Pacific islands through his sensual senses. But how do you change the narrative? How do you change the way you watch?"
Line Clausen Pedersen, the Danish curator who has produced several gorgon exhibitions, said that to ensure that his artistic heritage was not tainted by his "marriage" to underage girls, the exhibitions should include such relationships. With each exhibition, "the historical preservation he once enjoyed is stripped away," she said. "Maybe now we can take off more protection."
制作过多场高更展的丹麦策展人里恩·克劳森·佩德森(Line Clausen Pedersen)说，为了确保高更的艺术遗产不会被他与未成年女孩的“婚姻”关系所污染，展览中应包含这些关系。每举办一次展览，“他曾经享受过的历史保护就被揭掉一层，”她说。“也许现在可以揭掉更多的保护层了。”
What needs to be said about gauguin today, she added, "is that we have to show all that dirt."