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核阴影下,如何保障平昌冬奥会安全?

  Pyeongchang, South Korea -- at every Olympic Games, safety is a top concern, with athletes and spectators scattered across the field and hard to protect. But few have been played out in the shadow of a nuclear confrontation like the winter Olympics in South Korea next week.

  韩国平昌——在每届奥运会,安全都是人们最关心的问题,运动员和观众分散在各处场地,难以保护。但很少有像下周将在韩国举行的冬奥会这样是在核对峙的阴影下进行的。

  Nearly 3,000 athletes from 92 countries and 100,000 spectators a day will gather around pyeongchang, 50 miles from the north Korean border, in what organizers say will be the largest winter Olympics ever. South Korea has mobilized tens of thousands of security personnel, including 50,000 soldiers, to form the most militarized security force in Olympic history.

  来自92个国家的近3000名运动员以及每天的10万名观众将聚集在距朝鲜边境50英里(约合80公里)的平昌各处,组织者称这将是有史以来最大的冬奥会。韩国动员了数万名安保人员,其中包括5万名士兵,组成了奥运史上军事化程度最高的安保力量。

  North Korea agreed at the last minute to attend the Olympics, a diplomatic breakthrough that ruled out the worst-case scenario -- at least temporarily. But when it comes to security deployment, north Korea remains the most unpredictable, with a history of violence when South Korea hosts international sporting events.

  朝鲜在最后时刻同意参加奥运会,外交上的这个突破排除了出现最坏情况的可能性——至少暂时是这样。但在安全部署方面,朝鲜仍是最不可预测的因素,因为朝鲜有过在韩国主办国际体育赛事时进行暴力活动的历史。

  On Thursday, a delegation of north Korean athletes arrived in South Korea as part of a large contingent of about 500 athletes, officials and performers. Their arrival brings another set of security challenges, including protecting them from south Korean extremists.

  周四,朝鲜运动员代表团抵达韩国,这是一个由约500名运动员、官员和表演者组成的庞大队伍的一部分。他们的到来带来了另一套安全挑战,包括保护他们免受韩国极端分子的攻击。

  Organizers have long feared that north Korea could test missiles or nuclear weapons during the games, or even set off an escalating chain reaction that could lead to war. Such concerns have eased since the January deal. The two sides agreed to march together under the same flag at the opening ceremony.

  组织者一直担心朝鲜可能会在奥运会期间试射导弹或核武器,甚至引发一系列不断升级的连锁反应,导致战争发生。自1月达成协议以来,这种担忧有所缓解。双方同意在开幕式上在同一面旗帜下一起入场。

  But doubts remain about north Korea's intentions.

  但仍有人对朝鲜的意图表示怀疑。

  North Korea will make trouble in one way or another and disrupt the smooth running of the Olympics, said Yoo dong-ryul, director of the Korea Institute of Liberal Democracy in Seoul. "In the years that the Kim dynasty has been in power, north Korea has never had a good cooperation with South Korea."

  “朝鲜会以这样或那样的方式制造麻烦,破坏奥运会的顺利进行,”首尔的韩国自由民主研究院(Korea Institute of Liberal Democracy)的院长柳东烈(Yoo Dong-ryul,音)表示。“金氏王朝掌权的这些年,朝鲜从未与韩国有过一次很好的合作。”

  In November 1987, 10 months before Seoul hosted the 1988 summer Olympics, north Korean agents detonated a bomb on a south Korean passenger plane, killing all 104 passengers and 11 crew members. One of the agents later admitted to investigators that the aim was to intimidate international athletes and tourists from attending the games. 纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  1987年11月,在首尔主办1988年夏季奥运会的10个月前,朝鲜特工在一架韩国客机上引爆了一枚炸弹,导致104名乘客和11名机组成员全部遇难。其中一名特工后来向调查人员承认,这么做的目的是为了恐吓国际运动员和游客,阻止他们参加奥运会。

  In 2002, South Korea and Japan co-hosted the World Cup soccer tournament, and a military clash between the two koreas in disputed waters killed six south Korean sailors hours before the south was to play for third place.

  2002年,韩国与日本联合举办世界杯足球赛,在韩国参加争夺第三名的比赛前数小时,韩国和朝鲜在争议海域发生了军事冲突,导致6名韩国水兵遇害。

  However, north Korea does not participate in those sports events. When north Korea participates in south Korean sporting events -- the busan Asian games in 2002 and the incheon Asian games in 2014, for example -- there are no major disruptions.

  不过,朝鲜没有参加那些体育赛事。当朝鲜参加韩国举办的体育赛事时——例如,2002年的釜山亚运会和2014年的仁川亚运会——没有出现重大干扰。

  As a result, south Korean officials and analysts believe the risk of a military provocation, nuclear or not, during the games has been greatly reduced.

  因此,韩国官员和分析人士认为,在奥运会期间发生军事挑衅(不管是否涉及核武器)的风险已经大大降低。

  But South Korea plans to deploy as many as 60,000 security personnel a day during the games, including 50,000 soldiers, more than double the number deployed during the 2016 summer Olympics in Rio DE janeiro.

  不过,韩国计划在奥运会期间每天派出多达6万名安保人员,其中包括5万名士兵,这个数字是2016年里约热内卢夏季奥运会期间部署的军事人员数量的两倍多。

  The possibility of a missile or nuclear test is very small, said Shin beom-chul, an expert on north Korea at the government-run Korea National Diplomatic Academy in Seoul. "North Korea may use the Olympics as a propaganda opportunity to show that while they may be a nuclear power, they also want peace with their neighbors."

  “导弹或核试验的可能性非常小,”首尔由政府开设的国家外交学院(Korea National Diplomatic Academy)朝鲜问题专家申范澈(Shin Beom-chul)说。“朝鲜可能会把奥运会作为一个政治宣传机会,表明尽管他们可能是一个核国家,但他们也希望与邻国和平相处。”

  Since north Korea agreed to participate in the games, organizers have scrambled to coordinate security and logistics for the north Korean delegation, which includes a cheering squad.

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  自从朝鲜同意参加奥运会以来,组织者便赶紧协调包括一支啦啦队在内的朝鲜代表团的安保和后勤。

  Jeong se-yun, a senior south Korean police official involved in the preparations, said the north's decision was a relief. "But it also gives us a lot of work," he said. "I've hardly slept in the last month. That's why my eyes are always red now."

  参与筹备的韩国道级警方官员郑世延( Jeong Se-yun,音)说,朝鲜的决定令人大松一口气。“但也给我们增加了大量工作,”他说。“上个月我几乎没睡过觉。这就是为什么我的眼睛现在总是红的。”

  One concern is what might happen during the games to prompt north Korean leader Kim Jong Un to recall the athletes and retaliate in some way.

  一个担心是奥运会期间可能会发生什么事情,促使朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong Un)召回运动员,并用某种方式进行报复。

  When a north Korean delegation passed through Seoul last month, a small group of right-wing protesters burned a portrait of Mr. Kim. To avoid angering north Korea's representative, who sees Mr. Kim as something close to a god, police quickly put out fires.

  上月当一支朝鲜代表团经过首尔时,一小群右翼抗议人士焚烧了一幅金正恩画像。为了避免激怒把金正恩看作近乎神一样的朝鲜代表,警方迅速灭火。

  North Korea's state media condemned the move as an "ugly crime" committed by "substandard human beings" and warned that South Korea would have only to blame if the north pulled out of the games.

  朝鲜官方媒体谴责这一行为是“人间次品”犯下的“丑恶罪行”,并警告说如果朝鲜退出奥运会,也只能怪韩国。

  Authorities are also wary of cyber attacks. Either north Korea or Russia is behind the cyber attacks. The Russian delegation was banned from participating in the pyeongchang games under the Russian flag after Revelations of systematic state-sponsored doping.

  当局也对网络攻击保持警惕。发动网络攻击的不是朝鲜,就是俄罗斯。在爆出存在由政府主导的系统性使用兴奋剂的情况后,俄罗斯的代表团被禁止在俄罗斯的国旗下参加平昌冬奥会。

  North Korea has developed a sophisticated hacking capability and has launched a series of damaging attacks around the world, including one in 2013. The attack briefly affected three south Korean Banks and two television stations.

  朝鲜已经有了成熟的黑客能力,并在世界各地发起了一系列造成损失的攻击,包括2013年的一场攻击。那场攻击导致韩国三家银行和两家电视台短期受影响。

  In response to more conventional threats, organizers say security forces plan to deploy both old-fashioned checkpoints and new technologies, such as facial recognition systems, smart cameras and drones. There will also be a tactical surveillance airship hovering in the air.

  为了应对更常规的威胁,组织者称安全部队打算同时部署老式检查站和新技术,如人脸识别系统、智能相机和无人机。届时还会有一架战术监察飞艇在空中盘旋。

  South Korea is considered one of the safest tourist destinations in the world, with a low crime rate and little record of terrorism outside north Korea. However, the Korea Times reported that immigration authorities said last month that they had deported 17 foreigners believed to pose a terrorist threat. Some of the returnees are said to be from central and southeast Asia.

  韩国被认为是全球最安全的旅游目的地之一,犯罪率低,并且除朝鲜外几乎没有恐怖主义活动记录。然而,《韩国时报》(Korea Times)报道,移民当局上月表示,他们驱逐了17名据信构成恐怖威胁的外国人。一些被遣返者据说来自中亚和东南亚。

  Overall, we view the games as low-risk, the london-based Risk Advisory Group wrote in a recent analysis of the pyeongchang games. "Compared to the host cities of the 2014 winter Olympics and the 2016 summer Olympics, pyeongchang has a good environment in terms of terrorism, crime and unrest."

  “总体上,我们认为本届奥运会风险低,”设在伦敦的风险咨询集团(Risk Advisory Group)在最近对平昌奥运会进行的一项分析中写道。“和距今最近的2014年冬季奥运会和2016年夏季奥运会的主办城市相比,平昌就恐怖主义、犯罪和动荡而言环境良好。”

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