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巴塔哥尼亚国家公园的诞生

  Cochrane, Chile -- an eagle hovers over a house atop a dry hill in a Patagonia park.

  智利科克伦——一只雄鹰翱翔在巴塔哥尼亚公园干草原一处干旱丘陵顶的独屋上空。

  In the valley below, not far from the town of exam cochran, President Michelle Bachelet (Michelle Bachelet) announced in Chile to create a huge national park system, it from the capital, 715 miles south of San Diego del horno PiLun reaches down to cape horn and that is the southernmost tip of South America, Chile, where the split into many fjords and canal.

  在下面的山谷里,离考科克伦镇不远的地方,米歇尔·巴切莱特(Michelle Bachelet )总统宣布在智利创立一个巨大的国家公园体系,它从首都圣地亚哥以南715英里的奥尔诺皮伦一直延伸至合恩角,那是南美洲的最南端,智利在那里分裂成许多峡湾与运河。

  The park was the idea of Kristine McDivitt Tompkins and her husband. The founder of two clothing brands, North Face and Esprit, began buying vast tracts of Patagonia for $345 million, or most of his fortune, in 1991.

  建这个公园是克里斯汀·麦克迪维特·汤普金斯(Kristine McDivitt Tompkins)和丈夫道格拉斯·汤普金斯(Kristine McDivitt Tompkins)的主意。后者是North Face和Esprit这两个服装品牌的创始人,他于1991开始,投入3.45亿美元(相当于他的大部分财富)购买了巴塔哥尼亚的大片土地。

  As bachelet talked about the creation of the park, Ms. Tompkins looked up and gasped as the eagles circled over her house. Eagle, once her husband's radio calling name.

  在巴切莱特谈到该公园的创建时,汤普金斯女士仰起头,看着老鹰在她的房子上空盘旋,倒抽了一口气;老鹰,曾经是她丈夫的无线电呼叫名。

  Mr Tompkins died in December 2015 at the age of 72 after a kayaking accident in Patagonia. A few months ago, by the couple's protection initiative umbrella group Tompkins Conservation foundation (Tompkins Conservation) to the Chilean government proposed a deal: as long as the Chilean government agreed to pay more land, and specify the new park to build a Patagonia national park system, they will protect and restore themselves to more than 100 acres of land to Chile.

  汤普金斯先生因为在巴塔哥尼亚的一次皮划艇事故,于 2015年12月去世,终年72岁。数月前,由这对夫妻执掌的保护倡议伞形团体汤普金斯自然保护基金会(Tompkins Conservation)向智利政府提出一项交易:只要智利政府同意拿出更多的土地,并且指定新的公园以建立一个巴塔哥尼亚国家公园体系,他们就会将自己保护和恢复的100多万英亩土地捐给智利。

  Bachelet's government eventually set aside nine million acres, more than the Tompkins had proposed, created five new national parks and expanded three more. The deal is a rare victory for conservation efforts in a region where mining, logging and agriculture are increasingly threatening ecosystems and forests.

  巴切莱特政府最终拨出了900万英亩的土地,超出了汤普金斯夫妇的提议,还创立了五个新的国家公园,并扩建了另外三个。对于一个采矿、伐木和农业越来越威胁到生态系统和森林的地方,这项交易是自然资源保护举措的一次罕见胜利。

  It is a partnership, Ms. Tompkins said in an interview, "a real example of public-private partnerships for large-scale conservation and the creation of national parks."

  这是一种合作关系,汤普金斯女士在一次采访中说道,“一个以公私合作的方式进行大规模保育和创建国家公园的真正范例”。

  The resulting Patagonia national park system covers 10 million acres, more than three times the size of Yosemite and Yellowstone combined. It has increased the size of Chile's public parks by nearly 40 percent and expanded protected areas for cougars, vultures, flamingos and endangered deer.

  由此造就的巴塔哥尼亚国家公园系统占地1000万英亩,比优胜美地和黄石公园加起来的三倍还要大。它将智利的公家公园面积增加了将近40%,还扩大了美洲狮、秃鹫、火烈鸟和濒危鹿类的保护区域。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  In April 2019, Tompkins donated the park to the national forestry service; One of the parks will be renamed after Mr. Tompkins.

  2019年4月,汤普金斯所捐赠的公园交由国家林业服务局运营;其中一个公园将以汤普金斯先生的名字重新命名。

  The parks are "not only good for Chile, but good for the whole planet," Ms. Bachelet said in an interview. "It shows that you don't have to be a rich country to make these kinds of decisions. All it takes is will and courage."

  这些公园“不仅对智利有好处,而且对整个地球也有好处”,巴切莱特女士在一次访谈中说道。“这表明,你不一定非得是一个富裕的国家才能做出这类决定。只需要意志和勇气就行。”

  Locals' reactions are somewhat ambivalent. Cochrane's mayor did not even attend the announcement in late January.

  当地人的反应则有点矛盾。科克伦的市长甚至没有出席一月下旬的宣布仪式。

  To get to the ceremony on that windy morning was a seven-hour drive from the nearest airport, in balmaseda, near the Argentine border.

  在那个刮风的早晨前往举行仪式的地方,需要从最近的机场驱车七个小时,机场位于靠近阿根廷边境的巴尔马塞达 。

  Along the way, unpaved, wild roads cut through the looming peaks, flanked by turquoise rivers and a seemingly endless lake called general carrera.

  沿途,未经铺砌的野路穿过隐约可见的山峰,侧面是青绿色的河流和仿佛无边无际的卡雷拉将军湖。

  The meadows dotted with alpacas (relatives of the camel) are gradually giving way to vast steppe and forest, while the deep blue waterways and magnificent snow mountains lie at the foot of the breathtaking ice sheet.

  点缀着原驼(骆驼的近亲)的草地,逐渐让位于辽阔的干草原和森林,而深蓝色的水道和壮丽的雪山,就在令人屏息的冰原脚下。

  It's a great coincidence to be here today, said John rosenblum, the retired dean of the university of Virginia's business school, who was visiting the park with his son on the day of the announcement.

  “今天能在这里真是太巧了,”弗吉尼亚大学商学院已经退休的院长约翰·罗森布鲁姆说道,宣布仪式那天他正好和儿子在公园游览。

  Mr. Tompkins traveled across Patagonia in 1961, when he was 18 and enjoyed adventure and rock climbing. Thirty years later, he bought his first piece of land there, a 42,000-acre raniway farm in the Los Angeles Lagos area, which he turned into an organic farm.

  汤普金斯先生在1961年的时候旅行穿越了巴塔哥尼亚,那时他18岁,喜欢探险和攀岩。30年后,他在那里买下了自己的第一块土地,那是位于洛斯拉戈斯地区占地4.2万英亩的雷尼韦农场,他把这里改造成了有机农场。

  The couple married in 1993, after Ms. McDevitt had retired from Patagonia, the outdoor clothing brand she was chief executive of. They began "a vagabond life focused on conservation projects in Chile and Argentina."

  这对夫妇于1993年结婚,当时麦克迪维特女士已经从她担任首席执行官的户外服装品牌巴塔哥尼亚(Patagonia)退休。他们开始了“一种关注智利和阿根廷保护项目的流浪生活”。

    蛐蛐英语 www.qqenglish.com

  The Tompkins teamed up with philanthropist Peter buckley to buy another 208,000 acres south of raniway farm, near the corcovado volcano. They also bought large tracts of land further south and northeast Argentina. They are currently donating the land to the Argentine government in four stages.

  汤普金斯夫妇与慈善家彼得·巴克利合作,在雷尼韦农场以南靠近科尔科瓦多火山的地方又买下20.8万英亩土地。他们还在更远的南部和阿根廷东北部购买了大片土地。目前,他们正在分四个阶段将这些土地捐给阿根廷政府。

  Over the years, they have been buying land from absent landowners and developing the more than 700,000 acres of pumalin park, which consists mainly of temperate rain forest and includes more than 1,000-year-old shandamous trees, relatives of the California redwood.

  多年来,他们主要是从在外地主(absent landowners)手里持续买地,并且开发占地超过70万英亩的普马林公园,这个公园主要由温带雨林组成,包括有着超过千年树龄的山达木树,这种树是加州红杉的亲系。

  The valley is used for ecological agriculture, and the park is open to the public with luxury wooden cabins, campsites, hiking trails and other infrastructure.

  山谷用于发展生态农业,公园里建造了奢华木屋、野营地、徒步路径和其他基础设施,向公众开放。

  Suddenly, the Tompkins were at the center of national security concerns.

  突然,汤普金斯夫妇站在了国家安全忧虑的风口浪尖。

  Politicians and the military claim that the park, which straddles the narrow space between the Pacific Ocean and the Argentine border, splits the country in two and endangers national sovereignty.

  政客们和军方声称,跨越了太平洋和阿根廷边境之间狭窄空间的普马林公园,将这个国家一分为二,危及国家主权。

  Business leaders and landowners accuse Mr Tompkins of impeding the economy. Nationalists say he is secretly creating a zionist enclave in Patagonia.

  商界领袖们和土地持有者指控汤普金斯先生阻碍经济发展。民族主义者称呼,他正在巴塔哥尼亚秘密地创立一个犹太复国主义飞地。

  The left is wary of an American businessman's land splurge. The Roman Catholic church opposes the Foundation for Deep Ecology, which Mr Tompkins founded in San Francisco in 1990, saying it tries to control population.

  左翼政党对一个美国商人大肆购置土地十分警惕。罗马天主教会反对汤普金斯先生于1990年在旧金山创立的深层生态基金会(Foundation for Deep Ecology),声称它试图进行人口控制。

  Mr. Tompkins has also been vilified by conservative news media, questioned by congressional committees and threatened with deportation.

  汤普金斯先生还遭到保守派新闻媒体的诋毁,被国会委员会质询,面临着驱逐出境的威胁。

  Then, in 2005, the Tompkins donated land to the Chilean government to create the park. That same year, the Chilean government designated pumalin a nature reserve.

  随后,2005年,汤普金斯夫妇开始向智利政府捐赠土地以创立公园。同年,智利政府将普马林指定为自然保护区。

  At that time, the Tompkins conservation foundation bought another large piece of land, a 764,000-acre sheep farm in the chacabuco valley, and named it Patagonia park. Local farm operators and farmers oppose the purchase, saying their traditional livelihoods will be destroyed.

  那时,汤普金斯自然保护基金会又买下一大块地,位于查卡布科山谷一个76.4万英亩的牧羊场,它被命名为巴塔哥尼亚公园。当地的农场经营者和农民都反对这项购买,声称他们的传统生计将受到破坏。

  With the help of international donors and partners, the group has dismantled more than 400 miles of fences, removed 25,000 sheep, once again built upscale log cabins, camps, hiking trails and roads, and made plans to restore natural ecosystems and reintroduce wildlife to their natural habitats.

  得益于国际上的捐赠者和合作伙伴的帮助,这个团体拆除了超过400英里的栅栏,移走了2.5万只绵羊,再一次修建了高级的木屋、营地、徒步路径和道路,制定了恢复自然生态系统、将野生动物重新引入自然栖息地的计划。

  There's a haunting spirit about the vastness of Patagonia that really affects you, Ms. Tompkins said on the day of the announcement of the new park network. "There are few places that hold you and hold you as tightly as doug and I did."

  “关于巴塔哥尼亚的广袤,它所带来的一种萦绕于心的精神实实在在地影响着你,”汤普金斯女士在宣布新公园网络的那天说道。“很少有地方像这里这样,抓住你、紧紧拥住你,就像发生在道格和我身上的一样。”

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