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硅谷想重塑美国教育,却遭遇了反叛

  Wellington, kan. -- the seeds of rebellion are planted in the classroom and grow in conversations between students and their parents' kitchens and living rooms.

  堪萨斯州威灵顿——反叛的种子在教室播下,在学生与父母的厨房和客厅对话中生长。

  It came to a head in January when Collin Winter, a 14-year-old eighth grader from McPherson, kan., joined a strike. High school students staged a sit-in in this small town near Wellington. Their parents organized in the living room, the church, and the back room of the mechanic shop, and attended the school board meeting en masse. Political slogans were nowhere to be seen in the courtyards of houses in the area, but now suddenly hand-made slogans with scarlet slashes began to appear.

  当堪萨斯州麦克弗森市一名14岁的八年级学生科林·温特(Collin Winter)一月加入一场罢课运动时,它达到了顶峰。在这个威灵顿附近的小镇,高中生举行了静坐示威。他们的父母在客厅、教堂和机修行的里屋组织起来,集体出席了学校的董事会。这一带的民居院子里看不到政治标语,现在却突然开始出现画着深红色斜线的手制标语。

  Silicon valley is coming to small-town schools in Kansas -- and it's not going well.

  硅谷来到了堪萨斯的小镇学校——但进展并不顺利。

  I just want to get my Chromebook back and tell them I'm done, said Kallee Forslund, 16. She is a tenth grader in Wellington.

  “我只想把我的Chromebook拿回来,然后告诉他们我再也不干了,”16岁的凯莉·福斯隆德(Kallee Forslund)说。她是威灵顿一名十年级的学生。

  Eight months ago, public schools near wichita launched a web-based platform and curriculum from Summit Learning. The silicon valley-based project promotes an educational approach called "personalized learning," which USES online tools to customize education. The platform provided by pinnacle was developed by Facebook engineers with funding from Mark Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, a pediatrician.

  八个月前,威奇托附近的公立学校推出了来自“巅峰学习”(Summit Learning)的一个基于网络的平台和课程计划。这个总部在硅谷的项目推广一种名为“个性化学习”的教育方法,用在线工具来定制教育。巅峰提供的这个平台由Facebook的工程师开发,其资金来自马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和他的妻子、儿科医生普莉希拉·陈(Priscilla Chan)。

  The change was initially accepted by many families in small-town Kansas, who have been plagued by underfunded public schools and deteriorating test scores. In the peak program, students spend most of their time on laptops, taking lesson plans and quizzes online and working at their own pace. Teachers only assist students by conducting tutorial activities and directing specific subjects. The system is free for schools. But laptops usually need to be bought separately.

  堪萨斯小镇的许多家庭最初接受了这一改变,他们一直受到资金不足的公立学校和不断恶化的考试成绩的困扰。在巅峰项目中,学生们大部分时间都会花在笔记本电脑上,在线参加课程计划和测验,并按照自己的节奏完成。老师们只对学生起协助作用,开展辅导活动并指导专项课题。这个系统对学校免费。但笔记本电脑通常需要另行购买。

  Then, some students began experiencing headaches and hand cramps. Some said they felt more anxious. One child had recurring seizures, and another asked to bring her father's hunting ear muffs to class to block out the voices of her classmates, who now do most of their homework alone.

  然后,一些学生开始出现头疼和手部痉挛的问题。一些人说他们感到更加焦虑了。有个小孩出现反复的癫痫发作,还有一个则要求带她爸爸打猎用的耳罩来上课,这样就可以屏蔽同学的声音,因为现在大部分功课都是独自完成的。

  We're using computers to teach, and the kids are all zombies, said Tyson Koenig, the director of a factory in McPherson. He went to see his son's fourth grade class. He took his 10-year-old out of school last October.

  “我们在让电脑来教课,孩子们全都跟僵尸一样,”麦克弗森一家工厂的主管泰森·科尼格(Tyson Koenig)说。他去看了儿子的四年级课堂情况。去年十月,他带着自己10岁的小孩离开了学校。

  In a school district survey of parents of McPherson high school students released this month, 77 percent of respondents said they would prefer their children not be in classes that use the peak. More than 80 percent said their children expressed concern about the platform.

  在本月公布的一项针对麦克弗森中学生家长的学区调查中,77%的受访者表示,他们更希望自己的孩子不在使用巅峰的班级中。超过80%的人称,他们的孩子对这个平台表示了担忧。

  Change rarely comes without a few nails in the door, said Gordon Mohn, Mr. McPherson's education chief. "Students are becoming autonomous learners and showing greater autonomy in their learning activities," he added.

  “改变很少是不碰几个钉子的,”麦克弗森的教育局长戈登·莫恩(Gordon Mohn)说。他补充道,“学生们正在成为自主学习者,并对自己的学习活动展示出更大的自主权。”

  The vast majority of our parents are happy with the program, said John Buckendorf, principal of Wellington high school.

  威灵顿中学的校长约翰·邦肯多夫(John Buckendorf)表示,“我们绝大多数的家长对这个项目感到满意。”

  The Kansas boycott is just one of a growing number of people across the country who oppose the summit. Peaking began testing its system in public schools four years ago and is now used by about 380 schools, involving 74,000 students. In November, students went on strike after some brooklyn high schools used the platform. In Indiana, Pennsylvania, the school board scaled back the peak after an Indiana University of Pennsylvania survey found that 70 percent of students wanted to eliminate it or make it optional, and voted this month on whether to end the program. In Cheshire, Connecticut, the project was withdrawn after protests in 2017.

  全国范围内有越来越多的人反对巅峰,堪萨斯州的抵制只是其中之一。巅峰于四年前开始在公立学校试用其系统,目前被大约380所学校使用,涉及7.4万名学生。去年11月,一些布鲁克林的高中使用巅峰平台后,学生们举行了罢课。在宾夕法尼亚的印第安纳,宾夕法尼亚印第安纳大学(Indiana University of Pennsylvania)一项调查发现,70%的学生希望取消巅峰,或让其成为可选项目,随后学校董事会缩减了其规模,并于本月投票决定是否终止该项目。在康涅狄格州的柴郡,该项目在2017年遭抗议后被撤销。

  When something is bothering them, the kids usually get used to it, the parents get used to it, and then they get over it, said Mary Burnham, who has two grandchildren at the Cheshire school and started a petition to stop using the peak. "But no one is used to this."

  “出现令人困扰的情况时,孩子们通常会适应,父母也会适应,然后他们就不再纠结了,”有两个孙辈在柴郡学校就读的玛丽·伯纳姆(Mary Burnham)说,她发起了一项中止使用巅峰的请愿。“但是没有人适应这个。”

  Despite the reluctance of many in the tech world to use electronics and software at home and the race to send their children to schools where technology is not allowed, silicon valley has been trying for years to reshape American education in its own image. The pinnacle has been one of the movement's frontiers, but the revolt has raised questions about the heavy reliance of public schools on technology.

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com/

  尽管许多科技界人士不愿在家里使用电子产品和软件,并且竞相把孩子送进不允许使用科技产品的学校,但硅谷多年来一直试图按照自己的构想重塑美国教育。巅峰一直是该运动的前沿阵地之一,但这次反抗引发了人们对公立学校严重依赖科技的质疑。

  For years, education experts have debated the merits of autonomous online learning versus traditional teacher-led classrooms. Supporters say programs like summit provide children with high-quality classes and teachers, especially in underserved towns. Skeptics worry that too much screen time could cause students to miss important interpersonal lessons.

  多年来,教育专家一直在争论自主在线学习和传统教师主导课堂孰优孰劣。支持者认为,巅峰这样的项目为孩子们提供了高质量的课程和教师,尤其是在那些服务不完备的城镇。持怀疑态度的人担心观看屏幕的时间太长,认为会让学生错过重要的人际交往课程。

  John Pane, a senior scientist at the RAND Corporation, has studied programs that use digital tools to customize learning. He says the field is still in its infancy. "There's not enough research," he said.

  兰德公司(RAND Corporation)的资深科学家约翰·潘(John Pane)研究过使用数字工具定制学习的项目。他说,这个领域仍处于起步阶段。“没有足够的研究,”他说。

  Summit's chief executive, Diane Tavenner, a former teacher, founded a series of public charter schools called summit public schools in 2003 and developed software for the classroom that allowed students to "unleash their inner power." The resulting peak learning program is growing into a new nonprofit organization called TLP education. Tavenner says the protests in Kansas are mainly about conservatism.

  巅峰的首席执行官黛安·塔文纳(Diane Tavenner)曾是一名教师,她在2003年创办了一系列名为“巅峰公立学校”的公立特许学校,并开发用于课堂的软件,让学生“释放自己内心的力量”。由此产生的“巅峰学习”项目正逐渐发展成为一个名为“TLP教育”的非营利新组织。塔文纳说,堪萨斯的抗议主要是因为守旧。

  Some people don't want to change. They like it the way it is, she said. "People who don't like peaks are also people who have been vocal in their opposition to change throughout the process."

  “有些人不想改变。他们喜欢现在这样的学校,”她说。“不喜欢巅峰的人也是那种在整个过程中一直高声反对变化的人。”

  In 2016, peak paid the Harvard Center for Education Policy Research to design a study, then decided not to participate in it. Tom Kane, a harvard professor who prepared the review, said he was reluctant to speak out against pinnacle because many of the educational programs are funded by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the Zuckerberg and Chan charity.

  2016年,巅峰花钱请哈佛大学教育政策研究中心(Harvard Center for Education Policy Research)设计一项研究,之后又决定不参与它。筹备这项评估的哈佛大学教授汤姆·凯恩(Tom Kane)说,他不太情愿公开反对巅峰,因为很多教育项目都是由扎克伯格和陈的慈善组织“陈-扎克伯格行动”(Chan Zuckerberg Initiative)资助的。

  Zuckerberg backed peak in 2014 and assigned five Facebook engineers to develop the software. In 2015, he wrote that pinnacle's programs help "meet the individual needs and interests of students," and that technology "frees up time for teachers to do what they do best -- mentor students." Since 2016, the chan zuckerberg initiative has pledged $99.1 million to summit.

  扎克伯格在2014年支持了巅峰,并指派五名Facebook工程师来开发该软件。2015年,他写道,巅峰的项目有助于“满足学生的个人需求和兴趣”,而且技术“为教师腾出时间,让他们可以做自己最擅长的事情——辅导学生”。自2016年以来,“陈-扎克伯格行动”已承诺向巅峰提供9910万美元的资助。

  In a statement, Abby Lunardini, chief communications officer for the chan zuckerberg initiative, said: "we take the issues raised very seriously, and pinnacle has worked with school leaders and local parents to address them." She added that many schools that use peak "love and support the program."

  在一份声明中,陈-扎克伯格行动的首席传讯官艾比·卢纳尔迪尼(Abby Lunardini)说:“我们非常重视所提出的问题,巅峰已经与学校领导和当地家长合作来解决这些问题。”她还说,许多使用巅峰的学校“喜欢并支持这个项目”。

  Wellington (8, 000) and McPherson (13, 000) in central Kansas best illustrate the response to the peak. The towns are surrounded by wheat fields and factories. Residents work on farms, at nearby oil refineries or in aircraft parts factories.

  堪萨斯州中部的威灵顿(8000人口)和麦克弗森(13000人口)最能说明人们对巅峰的反应。这些城镇四面环绕着麦田和工厂。居民在农场、附近的炼油厂或飞机零部件制造厂工作。

  In 2015, Kansas announced that it would support "moonshot" initiatives like "personalized learning" in its education system. Two years later, it chose the "astronauts" in the school district, including McPherson and Wellington. When parents receive brochures promising "personalized learning", many are thrilled. The school district director chose the top.

  2015年,堪萨斯州宣布在教育系统中支持“个性化学习”等“登月工程”般的超前项目。两年后,它选择了学区中的“宇航员”,麦克弗森和威灵顿也在其中。当家长们收到承诺“个性化学习”的宣传小册子时,许多人兴奋不已。校区主管选择了巅峰。

纽约时报中英文网 http://www.qqenglish.com

  We want every child to have a level playing field, said Brian Kynaston, a macpherson dentist and school trustee.

  “我们想让每个孩子都拥有公平的竞争环境,”麦克弗森牙医、校董布赖恩·基纳斯顿(Brian Kynaston)说。

  He said he liked the lessons at the top. His 14-year-old daughter, Kelcie, said she felt a sense of autonomy. "People are too quick to jump to conclusions," he said.

  他说他喜欢巅峰的课程。他14岁的女儿凯尔西(Kelcie)说,她感受到了自主性。“大家都太急于去下结论,”他说。

  You want your kids to be innovators, says koenig, the factory's director. You want them to be at the forefront of the future."

  工厂主管科尼格说:“你会希望你的孩子成为创新者。你希望他们站在未来的最前沿。”

  (if you are a parent, teacher or manager who has experience with peak learning and would like to discuss it with us, click here to contact us.)

  (如果您是一位家长、老师或管理者,有使用巅峰学习平台的经验,并希望与我们进行讨论,点击这里与我们联系。)

  At the start of the school year, children were given laptops to use the top software and lessons. In class, they sit in front of the computer to study math, English, history and other subjects. The teacher told the students that their role now was that of a mentor.

  新学年开始时,孩子们领到使用巅峰软件和课程的笔记本电脑。在课堂上,他们坐在电脑前面学习数学、英语、历史等科目。老师告诉学生们,他们现在的角色是辅导者。

  Parents of students with special needs immediately noticed the problem. Amy Jackson's daughter, Megan, 12, has epilepsy, and her neurologist advised her to limit screen time to 30 minutes a day to reduce seizures. Megan has had seizures several times a day since the school started using peak.

  有特殊需要的学生的家长立即注意到了问题。威灵顿的夜班护士艾米·杰克逊(Amy Jackson)的女儿,12岁的梅根(Megan)患有癫痫,神经科医生建议她把每天看屏幕的时间限制在30分钟以内,以减少癫痫发作。自从学校开始使用巅峰以来,梅根的癫痫每天都会发作好几次。

  Peaking usually leads students to click on links to the open web, and in September, some students stumbled upon problematic content while studying on the platform.

  巅峰通常会引导学生点击指向开放网络的链接,今年9月,一些学生在该平台学习时偶然发现了有问题的内容。

  In a course on paleolithic history, peak provides a link to an article in the UK's Daily Mail that shows pornographic advertisements for bikini-clad women. Two parents said their children were directed to a Christian conversion website to look up the ten commandments.

  在一节关于旧石器时代历史的课程中,巅峰提供了英国《每日邮报》(Daily Mail)上一篇文章的链接,其中展示了穿着比基尼的女人的色情广告。两位家长说,为了查十诫,他们的孩子被引向一个基督教皈依网站。

  Mr Tavenner says that building the course through the open Internet means that mailonline articles are also optional in the programme. "The daily mail articles are not demanding reading standards," she said. She also said that, as far as she knew, the top classes did not direct students to Christian conversion sites.

  塔文纳说,通过开放的互联网构建课程,这意味着《每日邮报》的文章也是课程计划的可选对象。“《每日邮报》的文章对阅读水平要求不高,”她说。她还说,据她所知巅峰的课程并不会把学生导向基督教皈依网站。

  Teachers across the country are divided over the summit. Some said it freed them from making lesson plans and grading papers, giving them more time to tutor alone. Others say it makes them bystanders. Some parents said they were concerned about the privacy of their children's data.

  全国各地的教师对巅峰的意见不一。一些人说,这让他们从制定课程计划和批改试卷中解放出来,这样就有更多的时间来单独辅导学生。另一些人则表示,这让他们成了旁观者。一些家长表示,他们担心孩子的数据隐私。

  The peak requires a lot of personal information about each student and plans to track them throughout the university and beyond, said Leonie Haimson, co-chair of the Parent Coalition for student Privacy, a national organization.

  “巅峰要求掌握每个学生的大量个人信息,并计划在整个大学乃至大学毕业后追踪他们,”全国组织学生隐私家长联盟(Parent Coalition for student Privacy)的联合主席莱奥妮·海姆森(Leonie Haimson)说。

  Summit means compliance with the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act.

  巅峰表示遵守了《儿童在线隐私保护法》(Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act)。

  By winter, many macpherson and Wellington students had had enough. Although the peak curriculum requires schools to promise to allow students to meet with their teachers for at least 10 minutes a week, some children say the meetings were only about two minutes long, or did not take place at all.

  到了冬天,许多麦克弗森和威灵顿的学生都受够了。尽管巅峰的课程要求学校承诺让学生每周与老师见面至少10分钟,但一些孩子说,会面只有大约两分钟,或者根本没有进行。

  Myriland French, 16, a student at Wellington high school, said her eyes were tired and she missed talking to her teachers and classmates in class. "Everyone is under more pressure now," she said.

  威灵顿高中16岁的学生米丽兰·弗兰奇(Myriland French)说,她眼睛疲劳,而且怀念和老师同学们在课堂上交谈的日子。“现在所有人的压力都更大了,”她说。

  Collin Winter, an eighth grader in McPherson county, said he joined about 50 other students in the January strike. "I was a little scared," he said of the involvement. "But I still feel good about doing something."

  麦克弗森县八年级的科林·温特(Collin Winter)说,他和约50名其他学生一道参加了1月份的罢课活动。“我当时有点害怕,”他说起参与情况时说。“但仍然觉得能做点什么挺好。”

  On a recent evening in Wellington, 12 parents and students held an organizational meeting in the back room of local parent Tom Henning's mechanic shop. Chris Smalley, a mechanic with two children, ages 13 and 16, attended the meeting. Smalley had been putting up increasingly large yard signs in front of his house, although he knew zuckerberg was unlikely to drive by and see them. The sign was red, with a slash in the middle of the word "peak."

  近日在威灵顿的一个晚上,12名家长和学生在当地家长汤姆·亨宁(Tom Henning)的机修行里屋召开了组织会议。有13岁和16岁两个孩子的机械师克里斯·斯莫利(Chris Smalley)参加了会议。斯莫利此前在家门前打出了越来越大的庭院标语,尽管他知道扎克伯格不大可能会开车经过看到它们。标牌是红色的,“巅峰”一词中间划了道斜线。

  It sounded good, the way they were selling us, smalley said. "That's the worst lemon we've ever bought."

  “原先听上去好得很,他们跟我们兜售的那一套,”斯莫利说。“那是我们买过的最差劲的柠檬车了。”

  Deanna Garver, the church secretary, whose sons are in second and eighth grade, also has a yard sign. It said, "don't go crazy following the peak."

  教会秘书迪安娜·加尔弗(Deanna Garver)的两个儿子分别上二年级和八年级,她也树了个庭院标语。上面写着:“别跟着巅峰跌疯了”。

  More than a dozen Wellington parents pulled their children out of public schools after the fall semester, according to city council member Kevin Dodds. In McPherson, Mr. Koenig and his wife, Meggan, used money they had saved for a refurbished kitchen and a vacation to send their children to a Catholic school.

  据市议会议员凯文·道兹(Kevin Dodds)称,去年秋季学期后,威灵顿有十几名家长让孩子退出了公立学校。在麦克弗森,科尼格和妻子梅根(Meggan)用为翻新厨房和度假攒的钱让孩子们去一间天主教学校就读。

  We're not Catholic, Mrs. Koenig said. "But we just think it's easier to talk over dinner about what they learned in religious classes than what they learned at the top."

  “我们不是天主教徒,”科尼格夫人说。“但我们就是觉得,吃晚饭的时候谈论他们从宗教课堂学的东西,还是比从巅峰学的东西容易多了。”

  Nearly 40 more families plan to take their children out of public schools this summer, dodds said.

  道兹说,另有近40个家庭计划于今年夏天让孩子退出公立学校。

  We're in the middle of nowhere, he said. "So use us as guinea pigs."

  “我们这儿穷乡僻壤的,”他说。“所以拿我们当小白鼠。”

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